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CAU´SIA a broad-brimmed felt hat, which was part of the national costume of the Macedonians [p. 1.389]and neighbouring nations (e. g. the Illyrians, Plaut. Trin. 4.2, 10). The name is obviously derived from its keeping off the heat of the sun (καῦσις, καύσων); but, as the native poet Antipater of Thessalonica tells us, it was a protection against bad weather generally (ἐν νιφετῷ), and also served as a helmet (ap. Brunck, Anal. 2.111). It was familiar to the Greeks of the Macedonian period (Menand. fr. 313, Meineke; Plb. 4.4, 5); and to the Romans as early as the time of Plautus (Mil. Glor. iv. 4, 42, where it is part of a sailor's dress; Pers. 2.3, 75; the mushroom-shaped hat of Trin. 4.2, 9, must have been an exaggerated causia). A purple (ἁλουργὴς) causia was worn regularly by the Macedonian kings as part of the royal .costume (V. Max. 5.1.4); the diadem or white scarf was wrapped round it and the ends

Hermes wearing the Causia. (From a fictile vase.)

Royal Causia, with diadem. (From a Macedonian coin.)

hung down behind. (See the second illustration.) Hence we read of the καυσία and διάδημα as worn together by Alexander the Great (Arr. Anab. 7.22), and his imitator Caracalla (Herodian, 4.8.5); and of the καυσία διαδηματοφόρος of the last of the Ptolemies (Plut. Ant. 54). These purple hats, of course without the diadem, were sometimes distributed as the highest military decoration (Plut. Eum. 8 fin.). The illustrations are taken from a fictile vase, and an early Macedonian coin of Alexander I. (about B.C. 500-460).

[J.Y] [W.W]

hide References (6 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (6):
    • Polybius, Histories, 4.4
    • Polybius, Histories, 4.5
    • Plutarch, Antonius, 54
    • Plutarch, Eumenes, 8
    • Arrian, Anabasis, 7.22
    • Valerius Maximus, Facta et Dicta Memorabilia, 5.1.4
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