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COMA (κόμη).

1. Greek.

The word κομᾶν in Greek signifies “to wear long hair,” and the constant epithet of the Achaeans in Homer is καρηκομόωντες, i. e. with the hair all over the head being allowed to grow. They are thus distinguished from the Abantes (Il. 2.542), who only allowed their back hair to grow long (ὄπιθεν κομόωντες), and the Thracians, who were called ἀκρόκομοι (Il. 4.533), because they wound their hair into a knot on the top of their heads. The gods, too, are represented as having splendid hair: Zeus has “ambrosial locks;” Apollo is “unshorn” (ἀκερσεκόμης); and the goddesses and distinguished ladies have “beautiful plaits” (καλλιπλόκαμοι, εὐπλόκαμοι). By contrast, the vulgar Thersites is represented as almost bald (Il. 2.219). The old scholiasts supposed, probably rightly, that κέρᾳ ἀγλαὲ in Il. 11.385 referred to a horn-shaped lock of hair, and Helbig (Das homerische Epos, p. 166) gives a representation of what he considers this to be. As to the colour of the hair in early times, we hear of yellow hair (ξανθαὶ τρίχες) belonging to several of the characters in Homer: Menelaus (Il. 3.284), Odysseus (Od. 13.399), Demeter (Il. 5.501), Agamede (Il. 11.740); cf. Hes. Th. 947. Unfortunately we have no certain illustration of the way the hair was dressed in Homeric times, and without illustrations we can seldom be very positive as to what descriptions exactly signify; though conversely a little later we must not lay too much stress on archaic statues, as the sculptors, having little command over the material, were forced to observe a greater homogeneity of treatment than was probably observed in the actual arrangements of the hair by the men of their day.

Turning, then, with this proviso, to the ancient statues, we find in them the hair built up in arrangements as stiff and symmetrical as, if not quite similar to, that of the Egyptian and Assyrian statues. The winged Artemis of Delos has an artificial arrangement of spiral curls on the forehead, and stiff symmetrical ringlets hanging down the back and shoulders (see Saglio, Dict. des Antiq. i. fig. 1800). Stiffer still are the front curls and the back ringlets of the Apollo of Orchomenus; and in the Apollo of Tenea there are a series of perpendicular curls on the brow similar one to another, and long hair hanging down the back, divided by horizontal lines into a series of homogeneous divisions. These horizontal lines doubtless point to the threads or thin metal spirals (often of gold or silver) which were fastened in this fashion round the hair. A bas-relief of a discobolus given by Saglio (fig. 1799) exhibits a similar arrangement, except that the back-hair is compressed into a circular roll. It is some arrangement of this sort which is described by Homer (Hom. Il. 17.52), where he tells that Euphorbus had πλοχμοί θ᾽ οἳ χρυσῷ τε καὶ ἀργύρῳ ἐσφήκωντο: and Helbig (Das Hom. Epos, p. 167 ff.) has supposed that this wasp-like fastening was effected by spirals (σύριγγες) of gold or silver. We hardly ever find in the archaic statues the front hair otherwise arranged than in some artificial symmetrical fashion (very frequently with three long ringlets or παρωτίδες beside the ears) of a row or fringe of curls or ringlets (σπεῖπαι), the back hair gradually passing, as time went on, from perpendicular or horizontally arranged locks to a fastening up of the back hair on the crown of the head by means of a band or bands. Illustrations tending to exemplify this may be seen in the following drawings, one representing the head of Apollo from an early Greek sculpture, and the other the head of Hermes, with braided hair, in the Etruscan style, and a sharp pointed beard, from an altar in the museum of the Capitol at Rome. In none of the statues is a

Apollo. (British Museum.)

Hermes. (Mus. Cap. Rome.)

band wanting. A very common arrangement is that figured in the cut on the next page of an ephebus of the fifth century, taken by Saglio from Gerhard's Berliner Trinkschale.

Owing to its frequency, this arrangement has been supposed by some archaeologists, e. g. Conze (Nuove Mema. dell' Inst. p. 408 ff.), to be the fashion of wearing the hair noted by Thucydides [p. 1.497](1.6) as retained by the Athenians till a short time before he wrote (χρυσῶν τεττίγων ἐνέρσει κρωβύλον ἀναδούμενοι τῶν ἐν τῇ κεφαλῇ τριχῶν). The κρωβύλος was a large tuft or bunch of hair, also called κόρυμβος. It is generally supposed that it was on the top of the crown, as in the Belvedere Apollo or the

An Ephebus of the fifth century. (Gerhard.)

Venus of the Capitol, or as in the accompanying figure of Artemis in the British Museum: others, as we have seen Conze does, suppose that it was on the back

Apollo Belvedere. Artemis. (British Museum.) Both figures with κρωβύλος.

of the neck; and the τέττιξ was a pin for fastening it. Helbig (l.c.) thinks the fashion was the same as that of Euphorbus noticed above, and that the τέττιγες are the metal spirals which compressed the collected hair, and which resembled the sunk--in bodies of grasshoppers. Many such spirals have been found in tombs, just at the head of the corpse; but it is not quite decided whether these were not some kind of ear-ring. Birt (Rhein. Mus. 1878, p. 625 ff.) supposes the τέττιγες to be a kind of clasp (fibula, περόνη), but such is not like the grasshopper. Schreiber (Mitth. der deutschen arch. Instit. 8.246) supposes the arrangement to be the hair drawn back from the ears and coming behind, while in front the hair is raised up in a tuft, and the τέττιγες fasten this front hair. This, indeed, agrees somewhat with the statement of Athenaeus (xii. p. 512 c), who distinctly says they were used περὶ τὸ μέτωπον.

In the Archaic period, as both sexes wore their hair long, the difference between the arrangement of the hair of men and women was not marked; but after the Persian wars the men begin to wear short hair; and, sculpture getting a greater mastery over its materials, the symmetry and homogeneous arrangements give place to the diversity of nature. We find heads on which the hair is represented falling into natural heterogeneous curls or ringlets: for example, the Hermes of Praxiteles. (See also the annexed cut of Hermes.) Rich luxurious hair falling in natural folds, such as is seen in the statues of Zeus (see annexed cut), was the ideal which the Greeks of this time conceived (O. Muller, Arch. der Kunst. § 330, 4). Though the men of this age all wore shortened hair, yet they not unfrequently represented ever-youthful

Hermes. (Vatican.)

Zeus. (Vatican.)

gods with long flowing hair fastened up like a woman's: a well-known example is the Apollo Sauroctonos.

Children still wore their hair long, the front hair being tied up in a knot (σκόλλυς) on the crown (O. Müller, op. cit. § 330, 1), or arranged in a long plait or plaits stretching from the forehead across the middle of the crown to the back of the head. (See Saglio, figs. 1809, 1810.) The former is supposed to be the σκορπίος alluded to by the Scholiast on Thucydides (1.6) as the tuft peculiar to children. The hair cut off when the boy became an ephebus was called σκόλλυς by Athen. (xi. p. 494 f) and μαλλὸς by Hesychius. It was cut off on the third day of the Apaturia (κουρεῶτις ἡμέρα) [APATURIA], the ceremony being preceded by a libation to Hercules called οἰνιστήρια, and the hair being dedicated sometimes to Apollo (for Theseus went to Delphi or Delos to perform this ceremony, Plut. Thes. 5; cf. Ath. xiii. p. 605 a; Theophr. Charact. 21), but generally to some river-god (cf. Il. 23.146, and Eustath. ad loc.; Aesch. Choëph. 6; Paus. 1.37, 2; 7.17, 4; 8.41, 3). Besides the ephebi, athletes wore their hair cut very short (Lucian, Dial. Meretr. 5, 3, and the statue of Palaestra in Philostr. Imag. p. 433), as did also certain Cynic and Stoic philosophers (Juv. 2.15; Pers. 3.54; and Jahn ad loc.). A ψιλὴ κεφαλὴ is also recommended to the Christians (Clem. Alex. Paed. 3.11). But it must be carefully remembered that by full-grown Greek men of the Classical period, especially the Ionians, the hair was worn moderately long, and much attention seems to have been bestowed upon it, especially by dandies (Aristoph. Kn. 579; Nub. 14, &c.). Agathon (ap. Ath. xii. p. 528 d) says that long hair was a sign of luxury (κόμας . . . μάρτυρας τρυφῆς).

Different from this was the custom of the Lacedaemonians, among whom the boys wore their hair short (Plut. Lyc. 16) and the men long, considering their hair “the cheapest of ornaments” (Plut. Apophthegm. Lac. 230, 15), and tradition marking it as one of the institutions of Lycurgus (Plut. Lys. 1: cf. Hdt. 7.208, 209; Plut. Nic. 19; Aristoph. Birds 1281; Aristot. Rh. 1.9, 26, who considers the wearing of long hair a class-distinction of the Spartans), though doubtless it was an old Dorian custom (Becker-Göll, Charikles, iii. p. 288). There are, however, some assertions seemingly at variance [p. 1.498]with this opinion. Thus Alcibiades (Plut. Alc. 23; de Adult. 7) is said to have cut his hair close, in order to be like a Spartan; and again they are said to have worn short hair till they defeated the Argives in 550 B.C. at Thyrea (Hdt. 1.82); but this latter is controverted by Plutarch (Plut. Lys. 1), and the former may be some mistake of Plutarch's from the fashions of his own day. The Euboeans wore their hair long at the back (ὀπισθοκόμαι, Poll. 2.28), like the Abantes in Homer; and the Macedonians wore long hair and beard till after the battle of Arbela, when Alexander made them cut both short, so as not to allow themselves to be seized thereby in hand-to-hand conflict (Plut. Thes. 5).

Pollux (2.29) has preserved to us a number of terms signifying different kinds of tonsures, which we can fix with some degree of definiteness. Thus, the “garden” cut (κῆπος) was the hair cut short on the crown, but raised all round with a crisping iron (Schol. Eur. Tro. 1165); the reverse, the “bowl” cut (σκάφιον), was the hair cut short all round the head (hence called περιτρόχαλα), with a centre tuft probably left intact (Schol. Ar. Av. 806; Hesych. ad Phot. s.v. cf. Hdt. 3.8). The latter attached only to slaves and the lower orders (Schol. Ar. Av. 856), and it is to be remembered that a mark of class-distinction between slave and free was established by their hair (τὴν ἀνδραποδώδη τρίχα, Plat. Alcib. 120 B). The Ἑκτόρειος was apparently the hair in front, above the forehead, puffed out, and the back hair flowing about the neck (Poll. 2.30); and the Θησηΐ, the hair cut close in the front (Plut. Thes. 5); while what we should call a fringe appears to have been called προκόττα, and was said to be a peculiarity of the Dorians (Poll. 2.29). Μαλλός, a lock of wool, was used for short round fleecy hair, resembling wool (μαλλοὶ πλοκάμων, Eur. Bacch. 113), such as is seen in some of the early Greek sculptures, particularly in the heads of Hercules.

Hercules. (British Museum.)

As to the way Greek women wore their hair, we frequently find in vase-paintings the front hair crisped in a kind of fringe, and the rest fastened back by a band in one long cue, itself tied at the extremity, often in a lump of some size. There nearly always appears to have been some band behind. Sometimes long ringlets hang down the neck underneath the band, as in the statue of Peace at Munich; sometimes the hair is all drawn back in a mass at the back of the neck, as in the Venus of Milo and the Venus de Medici. A not uncommon arrangement for young girls was to have the hair drawn up and fastened in a large bunch on the top of the head; an example is the Victory given by Stackelberg (Gräber der Hellenen, plate 60; cf. pl. 29 and 15). It would be endless to describe all the different forms in which women wore their hair which appear on statues. Saglio (i. p. 1361), Blümner (in Baumeister's Denkmäler, p. 618), and Guhl and Koner (fig. 222, p. 205, ed. 4) give a great number of illustrations, which show that they were as various as may be seen in our drawing-rooms to-day. As time went on, the

Fashion of hair of Greek girls. (Right-hand figure, Niobe; left, from a bas-relief at Rome.)

arrangements of the hair came to be more and more artificial and crisped with the curlingtongs, till the climax is reached in the wonderful structures which appear in Roman times. Especial notice is to be taken of the head of Berenice, wife of Ptolemy Soter (Visconti, Icon. grecque, pl. 52, 6 and 7), which exhibits a great number of delicately arranged curled ringlets hanging over the forehead all down the temples and on to the shoulders. The only feature noticeable as common to the different headdresses is that they all tended to narrow the forehead, and we know that such was considered a mark of beauty (see O. Müller, Arch. der Kunst, § 329, 3)

For the barbers and their instruments, see TONSOR; and for the various pomades used, UNGUENTUM But a word must be said about false hair and dyeing. The wearing of false hair, whether wig (πηνίκη, φενάκη, πρόσθετον, ἔντριχον, κεφαλὴ περίθετος) or front (προκόμιον), a custom which undoubtedly came to the Greeks from the East (Wilkinson, Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, 3.355; Xen. Cyrop. 1.3, 2), is chiefly mentioned of women and effeminate men (Aristoph. Thes. 258; Ael. VH 1.26; Lucian, Dial. Meretr. 5.3, &c.). As to dyeing, the colour most affected was yellow (ξανθή): see Plut. Amat. 25; Lucian, Amor. 40; Poll. 2.30; Ath. xii. p. 542. It is noticed as something strange that the hair of Atalanta (Ael. VH 13.1) and Lais (Alciphr. Frag. 1) was naturally of this colour. But, as in all ages, it was considered as a mark of being “fast” for women to wear yellow hair (Menander ap. Clem. Alex. Paed. 3.2); though we find men too choosing this colour, e. g. Demetrius Phalereus (Ath. xii. p. 542). Dyeing was frequently resorted to in order to conceal grey hairs (Ael. VH 7.20).

When Andromache hears of the death of Hector (Il. 22.469), in her distraction she lets fall from her head her ἄμπυξ, a band or fillet fastened from the front of the forehead to the back of the head near the neck [AMPYX]; her κεκρύφαλος or coif (though Buchholz, Die homer. Realien, 2.2, 269, takes it as similar to the tutulus; see below); her πλεκτὴ ἀναδέσμη, a thick puffed-out band at the end of the coif, fastening in the mass of hair enclosed thereby; and her κρήδεμνον, a cloak or mantilla, with [p. 1.499]lappets hanging down on both the cheeks (hence the plural κρήδεμνα), or, according to Buchholz, a “veil,” = καλύπτρη. The κρήδεμνον could be drawn at will entirely over the face (Il. 14.184; cf. Helbig, op. cit. pp. 157 ff.). It appears to have been similar to the Latin calantica; see below. As to other fastenings used for the hair, we hear of the στεφάνη, a metal plate resting on the front part of the head, and especially found in representations of goddesses (Il. 18.597). The σφενδόνη (Poll. 5.96) or “sling-shaped band” was perhaps similar,

Hera (Juno) with σφενδόνη. (British Museum.)

broad in the middle, where it stood on the forehead, and tapering away towards the extremities; the ὀπισθοσφενδόνη (Aristoph. Thesm. Fr. 320, ed. Kock) was a similar band for the back hair. The στλεγγὶς was, according to Pollux (7.179), “a gilt band,” and indeed most hairbands were somehow ornamented with gold or silver (ib. 5.96). Those dedicated by Nicias in C. I. A. 2.824, line 10, had raised work in wood (ἐπίτηκτοι ἐν ξύλῳ), and were probably like combs (Boeckh, Staatshaushaltung, ii.3 289, 290). The usual names for ornamental combs were ξάνια or κτένια (Poll. 5.96).

The generic term for any hair-coverings other than regular hats was κεκρύφαλος. They appear

Greek Head-dresses. (From ancient vases.) Greek Head-dresses. (From ancient vases.) The left-hand figure on the top wears a κεκρύφαλοξͅ proper (reticulum). Of the two bottom figures, the one on the left hand wears a μίτρα, and the one on the right a σάκκοξͅ.

to have been made of silk (Salmas. ad Solin. p. 392), byssus (Paus. 7.24, 7), and wool (Poll. 7.66). Yet κεκρύφαλος was strictly applied to a net, like that in No. 1 of the accompanying cut. The σάκκοι were pouches of thicker stuff, not of net-work, which covered either the whole or part of the head, and were usually coloured (examples in Nos. 2 and 3). Bladders (πομφόλυγες, Aristoph. Thesm. Fr. 320, ed. Kock) appear to have been used for this purpose (Moeris, Att. 222; cf. Martial, 7.33, 19). The μίτραι. were originally bands which gradually became broader and broader (see No. 4), till they developed into a kind of cap with lappets hanging down over the ears and cheeks, not dissimilar to the κρήδεμνα. They were of bright colours, a non-Grecian article of apparel, and were especially (at least in later times) worn by prostitutes (Serv. ad Aen. 4.216; Mayor on Juv. 3.66).

It has been customary among most peoples to cut off some of the hair as a sign of mourning for the dead. For Grecian examples, see Hom. Od. 4.198; n. 23.135; Eur. Hel. 1087; Iph. Aul. 1438; Lysias, Epitaph. § 60; Athen. 15.675 a. According to Plutarch, indeed (Quaest. Rom. 14 = 2.267, ed. Reiske), it was a custom among the Greeks for the women to shave off their hair in sign of mourning, while the men let the hair grow, each sex reversing its usual practice (cf. Artemid. Oneir. 1.19, who says that the men whose custom it was to wear long hair were philosophers, prophets, priests, kings, rulers, and actors); but these statements no doubt refer solely to Imperial times (Hermann-Blümner, Privatalt. p. 370, note 1). In an interesting section of his Ceremonial Institutions ( § 361) Mr. Herbert Spencer, with great wealth of illustration from tribes and nations in all parts of the world, shows how cutting off the hair, like most other mutilations, is a sequence of trophy-taking, and, whether used as a class-distinction or in religious ceremonial (especially in ceremonies to the dead), it betokened the subjection of the shorn man either to his fellow-man or to the gods. We still observe the practice of cutting the hair in order to mark our convicts.

2. Roman.

1. Men's hair.

The Romans in early days used to wear long hair (Liv. 5.41, 9; Cic. Cael. 14, 33), and they often speak of their incompti avi (Ov. Fast. 2.30): cf. also Hor. Od. 2.15, 11; Juv. 5.30, and Mayor on Juv. 16.31. The coin representing Quirinus, struck under Augustus, represented him as having long ringlets hanging down his back (cf. Verg. A. 6.810). In 300 B.C. we are told that Titinius Mena introduced barbers into Rome from Sicily (Varro, R. R. 2.11, 10; Plin. Nat. 7.211). Whether this was the case or not may be disputed; certain it is that we have the story of Attus Navius pointing to the knowledge of the razor in most remote times: perhaps it was the scissors (forfex), which was introduced about 300 (Marquardt, Privatleben, 581). At any rate, it was from about that time that it became the custom to wear the hair cut short, and it was only in times of misfortune (e. g. when M. Livius was disgraced: Liv. 27.34, 5), or from exceptional circumstances, as in foreign countries in order to appear more imposing to the inhabitants (e.g. Scipio in Africa, Liv. 28.35, 6), that a Roman allowed his hair to grow. The men wore their hair cut [p. 1.500]quite short, and let it lie without making any division, either quite flat or curled (crispus) or waving (capillo leniter inflexo), according as nature willed it, using no artificial dressing whatsoever further than combing it on feast days (cf. Hor. Od. 1.15, 14). On statues we generally find the hair brushed forward on the head, so that the forehead was narrowed, a narrow forehead being considered by the Romans, as by the Greeks, a mark of beauty (Hor. Ep. 1.7, 26; Carm. 1.33, 5; Mart. 4.42, 9). This is seen in the fine coin of Antonius annexed. The hair hanging over the forehead like a fringe was called capronae (Lucil. op. Non. p. 22; Apul. Flor. iii. p. 342; Fest.p. 48, M.), while the locks which hung on each side down the temples were called antiae (Apul.

Coin of Antony.

l.c.; Fest. p. 17, M.). Both the capronae and antiae are seen in the annexed figure of Cupid from the British Museum. To be sure, dandies paid elaborate attention to their hair, wearing artificially arranged curls and fringes crisped with the curling-tongs and soaked with unguents, but are spoken of with contempt for so doing (Cic. Cat. 2.1. 0, 22; Sest. 8, 18; Rose. Am. 46, 135; Pis. 11, 25). The ordinary simple way of wearing the hair continued under the early

Cupid. (Brit. Museum.)

empire, the statues of Augustus and his immediate family exhibiting it (Visconti, plates 18 ff.). Nero indeed (ib. pi. 30, 3) and Otho (31, 6) appear to have arranged their hair in tiers of curls (comam in gradus formatam, Suet. Nero 51); but they were notorious fops, and fops always spent much time and trouble on the arranging of their hair, “preferring disorder in the state than in their curls” (Senec. de brev. Vitae, 12, 3, a vigorous declamation on the extravagance in this direction).

Bust of M. Vipsanius Agrippa.

We find true Romans, like Trajan (Visconti, pl. 36, 4 and 5), wearing their hair combed quite plainly, forward from the crown towards the forehead. Some of the Antonines, especially the luxurious Lucius Verus, appear with highly-crisped and curled hair, as indeed do several statues of M. Aurelius (ib. pl. 41) and his son Commodus; but in the reign of M. Aurelius it became the custom to wear the hair cut quite short (ἐν χρῷ), like the austere philosophers; and as we see from coins and statues, e. g. Alex. Severus (ib. pl. 52, 1 and 2) and Trebonianus Gallus (pl. 57, 1 and 2), ,, this practice continued, except in

Bust of Commodus.

the case of Elagabalus and Gallienus (pl. 51 and 57), down to the time of Diocletian, when the hair appears a little longer, but combed quite flat down on the crown without division, and cut evenly round the forehead. See the figures on the

Bust of Alexander Severus.

Bust of Elagabalus.

broken disc in Saglio (fig. 1852), and the busts of Constantine the Great in Visconti (pl. 61, 1 and 2). A fine medal of Constantine (Saglio, fig. 1853) shows us the hair worn still longer, but yet not of any extreme length, with a fringe of short curls on the forehead and the neck covered with similar curls. After this time there appears to have been a great deal of attention paid to the adornment of the hair, and the barbers were people of no small pretensions, as may be seen from the story of Julian and the barber in Amm. Marc. 22.4, 9-10, and the Misopogon of the emperor himself.

Boys appear ordinarily to have had their hair cut short, and combed forward on the forehead like the men. See the bust of Marcellus in Visconti (pl. 19, 6 and 7), Drusus (ib. 23), Annius Verus (ib. 42), Commodus (ib. 44), Philip (ib. 55). Sidonius (Ep. 4.13) says it was cut round the forehead in rotae specimen. But young boys employed in the service of religion (the Camilli) are always represented as wearing long hair (e. g. on the Column of Trajan); and favourite boy-slaves employed to wait at table are especially noted as comati (Mart. 12.70, 9 ; Lucian, Saturn. 24). Similar [p. 1.501]terms are capillati, cincinnatuli. Seneca (Ep. 95, 24) even says that the arrangement of their hair formed one of the modes of classification of such slaves.

In the case of men, dyeing the hair black (Mart. 3.43) and blonde (Trebell. Gallien. 21, 4) is well attested (cf. Mart. 4.36, &c.). Wigs (capillamenta, galeri) are also mentioned (Suet. Cal. 11; Nero, 26; Otho, 12), and remains of wigs have been found in the Catacombs (Marquardt, Privatleben, p. 586).

2. Women's hair.

Binding the hair back in a plain knot with fillets (vittae), occasionally with a plait in front, appears to have been the ordinary arrangement followed by maidens (Ov. Met. 8.319; 3.170), and such is seen on coins representing Diana, Victory, &c., struck during the republic, the knot being sometimes on the back of the crown, sometimes lower down

  • 1. Octavia, the niece of Augustus. (Capitol. Mus., Rome.)
  • 2. Messalina, wife of Claudius.
  • 3. Sabina, wife of Hadrian.
  • 4. Plautilla, wife of Caracalla. (The last three from the British Museum.)

on the back of the head or on the neck; sometimes, however, on the middle of the crown. All artificial arrangements, curls, ringlets, &c., were considered meretricious (Plaut. Truc. 2.2, 32). At marriage the dressing of their hair was altered (Tert. de Virg. Vel. 12). It was one of the wedding ceremonies for the bridegroom to divide the hair of the bride with the caelibaris hasta (Ov. Fast. 2.560; Festus, s. v.) into six divisions (sex crines: see Festus, s. v. senis crinibus), and these were fastened up with a different (V. Max. 5.2, 1) kind of vitta (Serv. ad Aen. 7.403) on the crown of the head (cf. Plaut. Mil. 3.1, 196 ; Prop. 5.11, 33; 5.3, 15). The matrons also in ancient times wore a high mass of hair on the crown, which was called tutulus, and Varro (L. L. 7.44) likens it to a boundary stone (meta); but it ceased to be worn in comparatively early times, though we do not know when (for ornatrix a tutulis in Wilmann's Ex. Inscr. 203 has been proved by Henzen to be not genuine), and the vittae came to be the special mark of the matron (Ov. A. A. 1.31; Pont. 3.3, 51), the tutulus being retained only by the Flaminica (Festus, s. v. tutulus).

In the early empire Ovid (A. A. 3.149) says that there were as many ways of ladies dressing their hair as there were bees in Hybla. But though they varied, as in our own days, according to what was considered becoming by the individual (and Ovid gives numerous precepts on that point), yet there were no very elaborately constructed arrangements. We find the hair divided in the middle by a plait stretching from the forehead across the crown to the back of the neck; sometimes instead of the plait a tuft of hair on the front of the forehead (the tonuis frons being in all cases aimed at), but the hair was let wave in natural folds along the temples and head. For different varieties see Livia (in Visconti, pl. 19, 1); Agrippina (pl. 24*, 1 and 2). However, as time went on, the way in which the hair was arranged became more and more artificial, with curls and ringlets in front and plaits behind, till the most wonderful structures came to be erected towards the latter end of the first century and the beginning of the second. (See cuts opposite.) The next cut, representing Julia, daughter of Titus, gives an example of them, as well as the annexed coin of Marciana, the sister of Trajan, and also the cut above (No. 3) representing Sabina, wife of Hadrian. These drawings show what Juvenal

Julia, daughter of Titus

and Martial allude to in several passages (Mart. 2.66; Juv. 6.492, 502; Stat. Silv. 1.2, 114). We can understand how severe the duty must have been on the unhappy tire-women. The whole diadem-like arrangement appears to have been called orbis, and the single ringlet annulus. The hair, too, was frequently adorned with jewels (Plin. H.

Coin of Marciana.

N. 9.117; cf. Clem. Alex. Paed. 2.2 and 11). St. Paul (1 Tim. 2.9) and St. Peter (1 Pet. 3.3) felt bound to warn Christian women against such “braiding of the hair.” During the whole of the second century there continued the most artificial arrangements of ladies' hair, but we find crisped curls in front giving way to plaits ; but these latter were no less employed to build up tower-like structures on the front part of the head. Such structures, however, which must have been excessively uncomfortable, gradually (see the bust of Faustina in Saglio, fig. 1864) went out of fashion (see Lucilla in Visconti, pl. .43); and in [p. 1.502]the third century waving hair (e. g. Crispina, pl. 45; Julia Domna, pl. 48; Plautilla, pl. 49, No. 4 above) appears to have been sought after,--though very likely the high arrangements of the preceding century continued to be worn, especially in the provinces (Tert. de Cult. Fem. 2.7; and later St. Jerome, de Viry. serv. Ep. 8)--till we arrive at such elegant simplicity as may be seen in the bust of Soaemis (pl. 51) or Mammaea (p1. 52, 5), though the hair of the latter appears to have been fastened behind with a mass of what looks like false plaits. From the time of Alexander Severus onward the arrangement adopted was to draw the back hair up and fasten it on the crown. This was sometimes done simply, as in the accompanying cut of Helena, or it was drawn up over a chignon; sometimes it was plaited, and then fastened up, either simply as in

Coin of Helena. (British Museum.)

the coin of Herennia (Saglio, fig. 1869) or wound round in circles rising one above the other on the top of the head (ib., fig. 1873)--like a tower, says Prudentius (Psych. 183). The figure of Galla Placidia in the diptych of Monza (ib., fig. 1874) shows two massive plaits of hair on the top of the head, one slightly higher and behind the other. It is noticeable that statues of the third and later centuries have often movable hair, so that it could be altered to suit the taste of each period; see Visconti, vol. 3.181, 192.

Women, of course, as well as men dyed their hair both black (Plin. Nat. 26.164) and especially auburn, often to cover grey hairs (Ov. A. A. 3.163). The practice is as old as Cato's time (cf. Serv. ad Aen. 4.698: “in Catone legitur de matronarum crinibus: flavo cinere unctitabant ut rutilae essent” ). In later times it was effected by a kind of pomade called spuma Batava or caustica (Mart. 8.33, 20; 14.26). It is noticed by Marquardt (Privatl. p. 764) that Galen (15.185, ed. Kuhn) declares that ξανθός, yellow or golden hair, is sometimes incorrectly used for πυρρός, red.

False hair was used by ladies in the time of the early empire (Ov. A. A. 3.165), and later (Mart. 5.68, 12.23); also wigs, generally yellow (galeri, Juv. 6.120; corymbia, Petr. 110; capillamenta, Tert. de Cult. Fem. 2.7), and chignons (caliendra, Her. Sat. 1.8, 48). We find the hair for these was imported, especially from Germany (Mart. 5.68), and even from India (capilli Indici, Dig. 39, 4, 16, 7).

The hair was fastened up with hair-pins (acus crinales, Apul. Met. 8.13; acus comatoria, Petron. 21) [Acus], and combs (pectines), which we find made of boxwood (Juv. 14.194), ivory (Claud. de Nupt. Honor. et Mar. 102), and tortoiseshell (Ov. A. A. 3.147). The hair was also at times fastened with bands (diademata) of gold set with jewels (Isid. Orig. 19.31; cf. Ov. Am. 3.13, 25; Lampr. Hel. 23), like the Greek στεφάνη. As to nets, the women used to wear reticula (Nonius, p. 542), sometimes made of gold threads (Juv. 2.96; Petr. 67). The mitra (Juv. 3.66) has been explained above; while the calautica or calantica or calvatica (Cic. in Clod. et Cur. ed. Orelli, 5.2, p. 336) was a cap with lappets covering the ears and with two strings for tying under the chin. Ausonius (Perioch. Odyss. v.) uses it to translate the κρήδεμνον of Homer, and it is used as nearly synonymous with mitra by Serv. ad Aen. 9.616. Nonius (p. 537) says it was worn by women only.

The chief works on the subject of the hair of the ancients are Salmasius, Epistola de caesarie virorum et mulierum coma, 1644; Krause, Plotina, 1858; Becker-Göll, Charikles, 3.287 f. ; Gallus, 3.237 if., 269 ff.; Hermann-Blümner, Privatalterthümer, 204 ff.; Guhl and Koner, Leben der Griechen und Römern (ed. 4), 200 ff., 623 ff.; Marquardt, Privatleben der Römer, 579-588; Blümner in Baumeister's Denkmäler, art. Haartracht and Kopfbedeckung; Helbig, Das homerische Epos, pp. 157-170; but, above all, the article in Saglio, Dict. des Antiquités, on Coma. All descriptions must, however, be supplemented by carefully looking through such illustrated works as the volumes of plates belonging to Visconti's Iconographie grecque and Iconographie romaine.


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