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CUDO or CUDON, a helmet of very simple form, fitting close like a skull-cap, made of leather or the skins of wild animals (Sil. Ital. 8.493, 16.59). It is probably to be identified with the Homeric καταῖτυξ or helmet of Diomedes (II. 10.258), described as ἄφαλον, “without knobs or projections” (Leaf), and ἄλοφον, “without plume or horse-hair crest:” known also from Greek representations of that hero, from one of which in bronze the annexed example is taken.

The cudo differed from the galerus (Verg. A. 7.688) in being of lessrough and shaggy fur: it probably answered to the λιτὸν περικεφάλαιον of the Roman velites (Plb. 6.22). In the sculptures

Cudo. (Rich.)

on the Column of Trajan, some of the Roman soldiers are represented with the skin of a wild beast drawn over the head, in such a manner that the face appears between the upper and lower jaws of the animal, while the rest of the skin falls down behind over the back and shoulders, as described by Virgil (Aen. 7.666). This, however, was an extra defence (Polyb. l.c.), and must not be taken for the cudo, which was the cap itself; that is, a particular kind of galea [GALEA]. In the illustration the cudo is seen fastened with a strap under the chin; this is the ὀχεὺς of Homer (Hom. Il. 3.372). (Rich, s.v. and for the Homeric helmet, Leaf in Journ. Hellen. Soc. 4.493 ff.)

[A.R] [W.W]

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