were public officers of various kinds
under the Roman empire, several of whom were first established by Augustus.
(Suet. Aug. 37
.) The most important of
them were as follow:--
1. CURATORES ALVEI ET RIPARUM ET CLOACARUM,
the charge of the navigation of the Tiber. The duties of their office may be
gathered from Ulpian (Dig. 43
, tit. 15). It was
reckoned very honourable, the office being always held by consulars, and the
persons who filled it received afterwards the title of comites. (Cf.
C. I. L.
i. p. 180; Wilmanns, Inscr. Lat.
No. 846, 849, 850, &c.)
2. CURATORES ANNONAE,
who purchased corn and oil for
the state, and sold it again at a small price among the poorer citizens.
They were also called curatores emendi frumenti et
tit. 5, s. 18.5.) Their office belonged to the personalia
that is, it did not require any expenditure of a
person's private property: but the curatores received from the state a
sufficient [p. 1.576]
sum of money to purchase the required
amount. (Dig. 50
, tit. 8, s. 9.5.) The title
appears on incriptions either as curator frumenti
comparandi in annonam urbis
(Wilmanns, 1252), or once as frumenti curator ex s. c.,
which appears to have
been a special case (ib. 1113). A more common title is praefecti frumenti dandi
(q. v.); but cp. Frontin. de
101, curatores frumenti.
3. CURATORES AQUARUM.
4. CURATORES KALENDARII,
who had the care in
municipal towns of the kalendaria;
that is, the
books which contained the names of the persons to whom public money, which
was not wanted for the ordinary expenses of the town, was lent on interest.
The office belonged to the personalia munera.
, tit. 4, s. 18.2; tit. 8, s. 9.7;
Heinecc. Antiq. Rom.
3.15.4.) These officers are mentioned in
inscriptions found in municipal towns, e. g. at Praeneste (Wilmanns, 1798,
1799), Corfinium (ib. 2062), Arretium (ib. 2093), &c.
5. CURATORES LUDORUM,
who had the care of the public
games as special commissioners (Mommsen, Röm.
ii.2 910). Marquardt thinks that the
were ordinary, and not
specially appointed officials (Röm.
3.467). Persons of rank appear to have been
usually appointed to this office. (Tac. Ann.
; Suet. Cal. 27
.) In inscriptions, they are
usually called curatores muneris gladiatorii,
6. CURATORES OPERUM PUBLICORUM,
who had the care of
all public buildings, such as the theatres, baths, aqueducts, &c.,
and agreed with the contractors for all necessary repairs to them. Their
duties under the republic were discharged by the aediles and censors. [CENSORES.] They are frequently mentioned in
inscriptions. (Wilmanns, 636, 1163, 1181, 1188, 1224, &c.)
7. CURATORES REGIONUM,
who had the care of the
fourteen districts into which Rome was divided, and whose duty it was to
prevent all disorder and extortion in their respective districts. This
office was first instituted by Augustus. (Suet. Aug.
.) There were usually two officers of this kind for each
district: Alexander Severus, however, appears to have appointed only one for
each; but these were persons of consular rank, who were to have jurisdiction
in conjunction with the praefectus urbi. (Lamprid. Alex. Sev.
33.) We are told that M. Aurelius, among other regulations, gave special
directions that the curatores regionum should either punish, or bring before
the praefectus urbi for punishment, all persons who exacted from the
inhabitants more than the legal taxes. (Jul. Capitol. M. Ant.
11. Cf. Wilmanns, 1222, 1715.)
8. CURATORES REIPUBLICAE
(with the name of the
community added), also called LOGISTAE
who administered the landed property of municipia. [COLONIA
p. 483 a.] (Dig. 50
, tit. 8, s. 9.2; 2, tit. 14, s. 37.) These
were appointed by the emperors: cf. C. I. L.
“curat. reip. Bergam. dat. ab imp. Traiano. curat. reip. Comens.
dat. ab imp. Hadriano.” Ulpian wrote a separate work, De
Officio Curatoris Reipublicae.
9. CURATORES TABULARUM PUBLICARUM,
appointed by Tiberius in A.D. 16, to assist in keeping the public records.
(Cf. Mommsen, Röm. Staatsr.
10. CURATORES VIARUM.