a term applied to the earliest iconic representations of the gods roughly
hewn out of wood (ἄγαλμα ξύλου,
= later ξόανον,
ib.). From a very early period stones (ἀργὸς λίθος, βαίτυλος
) and trees received
divine honours. (Lucian, Pseudom.
30; C. Bötticher,
d. Baumcultus d. Hellenen;
Overbeck, d. Cultusobj.
b. d. Gr.
). Thus Artemis Soteira at Boiae was a myrtle (Paus. 3.22
Paphian Aphrodite a conical stone. The effigy of the god, down to the latest
times, was placed in a tree (in a cedar at Orchomenos, id. 8.13, 2; Cybele
on coins of Myra, Collign. p. 10). The immediate predecessor, however, of
was a squared beam or flat
board, which, like the pillar, was probably draped and decorated (cf.
Callim. of Hera at Samos: οὐπω Σμιλικὸν
[p. 1.593]ἔργον ἐΰξοον, ἀλλ᾽
| δηναιῷ γλυφάνων
ἄξοος ἦσθα σανίς,
Euseb. Praep. Ev. 3.8
; draped stone
on coin of Juliopolis (Gordium), Collignon, p. 13). Carved in shallow
relief, with human form, the plank became a δαίδαλον;
or later, with head, hands, and feet of marble
adjusted, the wood hidden by the drapery, an acrolith (Paus. 3.16
). The uncouth character
of the most archaic type was shown in the omission or mere indication of all
detail (Tzetzes, Chil.
1.538: ἄχειρας, ἄποδας, ἀομμάτους,
), and the stiff upright
attitude. The more realistic and varied conception of the later ξόανον
is ascribed to Daedalos (Paus. 2.4
; 9.3, 2).
He separated the legs, raised the arms, and opened the eyes. Ancient
writers, however, are hardly consistent in their judgments of his reputed
works. Pausanias recognised high merit (τι
) in a rude art ; a Heracles was so lifelike that the god
himself threw a stone at it in the night (Hesych. sub
); yet his Delian Aphrodite, with
arms, ended in a square block like a hermes (Paus.
); and in Plato's time
p. 282 A) Daedalos would appear ridiculous.
The author of the χορὸς
of Ariadne [Il. 18.590
; according to Paus. 9.40
, a marble
relief (a material not used before 20th Ol.)], of the
Cretan Labyrinth, &c., a contemporary of Minos and Theseus, who was
rather a mechanician and architect than sculptor, is separated by centuries
from the beginning of Greek art (7th or 8th cent.). But Attic legend
gradually evolved a quasi-historical Daedalus, patron of turners and
sculptors (Daedalids), with whose name an important reform in art was
: a sitting Hera in pear-wood
); a Britomartis at Olus, Crete
(id. 9.40, 2), &c.; attributed to Daedalus, ξ.
of Herakles, Corinth (id. 2.4, 5); a Heracles, on the
frontier of Messenia and Arcadia (id. 8.35, 2); ξ. τὸ
Thebes (id. 9.11, 9), &c. Cf. Brunn,
Gesch. gr. Künstl.
pp. 14, 15.
Archaeological evidence: archaic marble Artemis, showing wood technique,
Delos (Bullet. Corr. hell.
t. iii. pl. 1); archaic agalma of
Here, frieze at Phigaleia (Overbeck, Kunstmyth.
2.2, 21; and
see under each god, lb.
Archaic or archaistic terra-cottas and marble idols from graves (ib. p. 25,
&c. ; Gerhard, Akad. Abh.
pl. lxi.; Daedal.
; Heuzey, Les Fig. ant. de terre cuite,
Coins: see above (also Blümner, Technol. u. Termin. d. Gew.
vol. ii. pp. 2, 177, 181; Overbeck,
Gesch. d. gr. Plastik,
3 ch. 2 ; id.
Collignon, Myth. Fig. de la