), a mask.
Masks were worn by Greek and Roman actors in nearly all dramatic
representations. This custom arose undoubtedly from the practice of smearing
the face with certain juices (Hor. ad Pis.
277) and colours,
and of appearing in disguise, at the festivals of Dionysus [DIONYSIA
]. The red colouring
was appropriate to that worship (Paus. 2.2
). But leaves were also used as coverings for
the face before masks (Suidas, s. v. θρίαμβος
: cf. Ath. 14.622
); and we
hear, too, of masks made of tree-bark (Verg. G.
). Now, as the Greek drama arose out of these festivals, it
is highly probable that some mode of disguising the face was as old as the
drama itself. Thespis (Suidas, s. v. Θέσπις
is said to have smeared the face with white lead
), afterwards with purslane
); and finally to have
introduced the linen mask. Choerilus of Samos, however, is said to have been
the first who introduced regular masks (Suid. s. v. Χοιρίλος
). The invention of masks is elsewhere attributed
to Aeschylus (Suid. s. v. Αἴσχυλος
278), though the latter had probably only the
merit of perfecting and completing the whole theatrical apparatus and
costume. Phrynichus is said to have first introduced female masks (Suid. s.
5=1449 b, 4) was unable to discover who
had first introduced the use of masks in comedy. Some masks covered, like
the masks of modern times, only the face, but they appear more generally to
have covered the whole head like a visor, fastened with bands under the
chin, for we find always the hair belonging to a mask described as being a
part of it; and this must have been the case in tragedy more especially, as
it was necessary to make the head correspond to the stature of an actor
which was heightened by the cothurnus. The terms for having a mask put on
are περιτίθεσθαι, ἐπικεῖσθαι,
: for putting off, ἀποτίθεσθαι, ἀφελεῖν
11, de Salt.
27, pro Mere.
29). The masks were made by
Aristotle (Aristot. Poet. 6
=1450 b, 19) notices how
important their art was for the stage effect.
I. TRAGIC MASKS.
It may at first seem strange to us, that the ancients, with their refined
taste in the perception of the beautiful in form and expression, should
by the use of masks have deprived the spectators in their theatres of
the possibility of observing the various expressions of which the human
face is capable, and which with us contribute so much to theatrical
illusion. But it must be remembered that in the large theatres of the
ancients it would have been impossible for the greater part of the
audience to distinguish the natural features of an actor. The features
of the masks were for this same reason very strong and marked. Again,
the dramatis personae
of most of the
ancient tragedies were heroes or gods, and their characters were so well
known to the spectators, that they were perfectly typical. Every one
therefore knew, immediately on the appearance of such a character on the
stage, who it was, and it would have been difficult for a Greek audience
to imagine that a god or hero should have had a face like that of an
ordinary actor. The use of the cothurnus also rendered a proportionate
enlargement of the countenance absolutely necessary, or else the figure
of an actor would have been ridiculously disproportionate. Lastly, the
solemn character of ancient tragedy did not admit of such a variety of
expressions of the countenance as modern tragedies; the object of which
seems to be to exhibit the whole range of human passions in all their
wild and self-devouring play. How widely different are the characters of
ancient tragedy! It is, as Müller (Hist. of the Lit. of Anc.
i. p. 298) justly remarks, perfectly possible to
imagine, for example, the Orestes of Aeschylus, the Ajax of Sophocles,
or the Medea of Euripides, throughout the whole tragedy with the same
countenance, though it would be difficult to assert the same of a
character in any modern drama. But there is no necessity for supposing
that the actors appeared throughout a whole piece with the same
countenance; for if circumstances required it, they might surely change
masks during the intervals between the acts of a piece. Whether the open
or half-open mouth of a tragic mask also contributed to raise the voice
of the actor, as Gellius (5.7
) thinks, cannot
be decided here, though we know that all circumstances united to compel
a tragic actor to acquire a loud and sonorous voice. The κωφὰ πρόσωπα
appear to have had masks
9; de hist.
4), also the chorus in Comedy (Schol. on Ar.
344; Theophr. Char.
6), and most
probably the chorus in Tragedy, both because it was likely that all the
performers should be fairly uniform in appearance, and also we are told
that the Eumnenides in Aeschylus's play had masks with snakes in their
hair (Paus. 1.28
). Yet in certain illustrations, such as in Baumeister's
fig. 910, the κωφὰ πρόσωπα
appear without masks.
The masks used in ancient tragedies were thus, for the most part, typical
of certain characters, and consequently differed according to the age,
sex, rank, and other peculiarities of the beings who were represented.
Pollux, from whom we derive most of our information on this subject,
enumerates (4.133, &c.) 28 typical or standing masks of tragedy:
six for old men, eight for young men, eleven for females, and three for
slaves. The number of masks was indefinite, which were not typical, but
represented certain individuals with their personal peculiarities, such
as the horned Actaeon, the blind Thamyris with one eye black and the
other grey, the myriadeyed Argus, Tyro with cheeks all bruised from the
blows of Sidero; the representations of River and Mountain Gods,
Centaurs, Titans, Giants, Indians, Tritons, the Minotaur, &c.;
and such allegorical figures as Justice, Death, Madness, Drunkenness,
Deceit, &c. See Pollux, iv. [p. 2.375]
who mentions many more such ἔκσκευα
as they were called. The only example of an ἔκσκευον πρόσωπον
which we possess is from
a very beautiful wall-painting from Pompeii, reproduced in Baumeister's
fig. 1947, p. 1851. It is
Perseus with his Cap of Darkness and its griffin crest. The standing
masks of tragedy are divided by Pollux (4.133-140) into five classes.
1. Tragic masks for old men
(133-135).--The mask for the
oldest man on the stage was called ξυρίας
from the circumstance of the beard being smoothly
shaved. The hair, which was in most cases attached to the masks, was
white, and hung down with the exception of a part above the forehead,
which was raised by a projection on the mask. This projection rose
either into an acute angle (λαβδοειδὲς
is the word Pollux uses), or was rounded at the top. It was called
The size of it varied
chiefly according to the social position of the person represented. The
chin of this mask was close shaved, the cheeks flat and hanging
downwards. This would be the mask worn by Cadmus, and perhaps Priam
(Suidas, s. v. πριαμωθῆναι
). 2. A
second mask for old men, called λευκὸς
had grey hair, floating around the head in locks, the
beard fixed to the mask and immovable (γένειον
). It had drooping eyes and a palish colour
). This was perhaps the
mask Tiresias would wear or the παιδαγωγὸς
in Sophocles' Electra
(43). 3. A third mask, called σπαρτοπόλιος,
had black hair interspersed with grey, and
was somewhat pale. It probably represented a hero of from 40 to 50
years, perhaps the mask of Oedipus (cf. Soph.
O. T. 742 f.
). 4. The fourth mask,
represented a hero in
his full vigour, with dark curly hair and beard, strong features and a
This was probably the mask
for most of the tragic heroes who were not very much advanced in age. 5,
6. For a secondary class of heroes there were two other masks, the
and the ξανθότερος ἀνήρ
: the former represented a
fair man with floating locks, a low ὄγκος,
and a good colour in his countenance; the second or
fairer man was pale and of a sickly appearance.
2. Tragic masks for young men
(135-137).--Among these are
mentioned: 1. The νεανίσκος
a mask intended to represent a man who had just
entered the age of manhood, and was yet unbearded, but of a blooming and
Mask of a young man. (|
Mus. Borb. xi. Tav.
brownish complexion, and with a rich head of black hair. This
is the mask to be given to such a character as Achilles in the Iphigenia in Aulis.
The word πάγχρηστος,
“all-excellent,” is used possibly for the virtuous hero of
the piece. 2. The νεανίσκος οὖλος,
fair youth of a haughty character; his hair was curly and attached to a
: his character was
indicated by his raised eyebrows. A specimen of the οὖλος νεανίσκος
is given above from a
statue of Melpomene (Mus. Borb.
xi. Tav. xlii.). 3.
: resembled the
preceding mask, but was somewhat younger. The counterpart of these two
was (4) the ἁπαλός,
a young man of a
delicate and white complexion, with fair locks and a cheerful
countenance, like that of a youthful god. 5, 6. Πιναρός.
There were two masks of this name, both
representing young men of a severe appearance, of yellow complexion and
fair hair, gloomy and squalid (κατηφής,
); the one, however, was thinner and younger. 7.
a mask quite pale, with
hollow cheeks and fair floating hair. It was used to represent sick or
wounded persons. 8. The πάρωχρος
be used for the πάγχρηστος
character was to be represented in a suffering condition or in love.
3. Tragic masks for male slaves.
--Pollux (137, 138)
mentions three--viz.: 1. The διφθερίας,
“leather jerkined,” which had no ὄγκος,
but some sort of a covering (περίκρανον
) round the smoothly-combed white
hair. The countenance was pale, the beard grey, the nose sharp, the
eyebrows raised, and the expression of the eyes gloomy. Perhaps like the
in the Bacchae.
2. The σφηνοπώγων,
“wedge-like-bearded,” represented a man in the prime of
life with a high and broad forehead, a large ὄγκος,
broad and rounded inwards at the top (κοιλαινόμενον ἐν τῇ περιφορᾷ
hard-featured and red like a messenger. 3. The ἀνάσιμος,
or snubnosed, had a high ὄγκος
) with fair hair rising up on it; had a reddish
face and no beard. He, too, acted as a messenger.
4. Tragic masks for female slaves
(139).--Of these five
specimens are given. 1. Πολιὰ
(i. e. with long grey hair), originally called
(with altered colour).
It represented an old woman with long grey hair, a small ὄγκος,
pale and dignified to indicate one
who had seen better days. 2. Tb Τὸ ἐλεύθερον
an old freed-woman with fair hair turning grey,
hanging over a small ὄγκος
down to the
shoulders. She was apparently in mourning. 3. Tb Τὸ οἰκετικὸν γραΐδιον
had a covering for the head
of sheep-skin instead of an ὄγκος;
very wrinkled. 4. Tb Τὸ οἰκετικὸν
( “with a tonsure,” like that of
monks) had a small ὄγκος,
rather pallid; was not quite grey-haired. 5. Διφθερῖτις
represented a young slave-girl without any
5. Tragic masks for free women
(140, 141).--Of these seven
specimens are given. 1. Κατάκομος
represented a pale lady with long black hair and a sad
expression. She generally shared the sufferings of the principal hero in
the play. On the next column is an example taken from Baumeister, op. cit.
fig. 1945, p. 1849. 2. Μεσόκουρος ὠχρὰ
resembled the former,
only that she had a tonsure and was pale, as well acquainted with
sorrow. 3. Μεσόκουρος πρόσφατος
probably represented one who was just new to some great sorrow. Hence it
had the tonsure for mourning, [p. 2.376]
but not the
paleness of 2. 4. Κούριμος παρθένος
had no ὄγκος,
but hair smoothly combed
Woman's Tragic Mask. (From a painting at Herculaneum.)
on each side of the head with a little cut off in front
(καὶ βραχέα ἐν κύκλῳ
). This was the mask of Antigone and Electra (see
1.500). 5. Ἕτερα κούριμος παρθένος,
like the other, except that
her hair was floating about as if she was in the most violent grief. 6.
or beautiful young girl, e.
g. a daughter of Danaus.
The account which Pollux gives of the tragic masks comprehends a great
number, but it is small in comparison with the great variety of masks
which the Greeks must have used in their various tragedies; for the
distorted masks with widely open mouths, which are seen in great numbers
among the paintings of Herculaneum
Mask, from a painting at Pompeii.
and Pompeii (see the annexed woodcut from Museo
vol. i. tab. 20), would give but a very inadequate
notion of the masks used at Athens during the most flourishing period of
the arts. All the representations of tragic masks belonging to this
period do not show the slightest trace of exaggeration or distortion in
the features of the countenance, and the mouth is not opened wider than
would be necessary to enable a person to pronounce such sounds as
In later times, however, distortions and exaggerations were carried to a
Masks, Tragic and Comic, from Pompeii.
extent, but more particularly in comic masks, so that they in
some degree were more caricatures than representations of ideal or real
countenances (Philostr. Vit. Apollon.
5.9, p. 89, Kayser;
Lucian, de Saltat.
The annexed woodcut represents some masks, one apparently comic and the
other tragic, which are placed at the feet of the choragus in the
celebrated mosaic found at Pompeii (Museo Borbon.
ii. tab. 56; Gell, Pomp.
vol. i. pl. 45). The ὄγκος
is fairly well represented.
II. COMIC MASKS.
In the Old Attic Comedy, in which living and distinguished persons were
so often brought upon the stage, it was necessary that the masks, though
to some extent they may have been caricatures, should in the main points
be faithful portraits of the individuals whom they were intended to
represent, as otherwise the object of the comic poets could not have
been attained (Platon. de Diff. Com.
Dübner; Aristoph. Kn. 230
and Schol.). We know that no σκευοποιὸς
ventured to make Cleon's mask; Aelian (Ael. VH
) says that the mask of Socrates in the
was a faithful representation. Of course, the
chorus of Birds and Clouds and such like had peculiar masks of their
own, as also such out-of-the-way characters as Pseudartabas in the
The masks of the characters in the Old
Attic Comedy were therefore, on the whole, faithful to life, and free
from the burlesque exaggerations which we see in the masks of later
times. A change was made in the comic masks when it was forbidden to
represent in comedy the archon by imitating his person upon the stage
Aristoph. Cl. 31
); and still more,
shortly after, by the extension of this law to all Athenian citizens
Aristoph. Ach. 1150
1297; Suid. s. v. Ἀντίμαχος
). The consequence of such laws was, that the
masks henceforth, instead of individuals, represented classes of men, i.
e. they were masks typical of men of certain professions or trades, of a
particular age or station in life, and some were grotesque caricatures.
A number of standing characters or masks was thus introduced in comedy.
In the New Comedy they were very ridiculous and unnatural looking, with
enormously wide and distorted mouths (Platon. de Diff.
p. 14.83-91), at least for the characters representing the
lower orders and old men. Platonius says the reason was fear of
caricaturing any influential Macedonian. Pollux gives a list of such
standing masks, which are divided, like those of tragedy, into five
1. Comic masks for old men
(143-145).--Nine masks of this
class are mentioned. The mask representing the oldest man was called
: his head was shaved
to the skin, he had a mild expression about his eyebrows, his beard was
thick, his cheeks hollow, and his eyes melancholy. His complexion was
pale, and the whole expression of the countenance was mild. 2. The
was of a more
emaciated and more vehement appearance, sad and pale; he had hair on his
head and a beard, but the hair was red and his ears broken from boxing.
3. The ἡγεμὼν πρεσβύτης,
old man, with a thin crown of hair round his head, an aquiline nose, and
a flat countenance. His right eyebrow was higher than the left. (Cf.
Quint. Inst. 11.3
: “alter erecto alter
composito est supercilio; atque id ostendere maxime latus actoribus
moris est quod cum iis quas agunt partibus congruat.” ) An
example of the ἡγεμὼν πρεσβύτης
given below from Müller, fig. 21.1 = Baumeister, fig. 905 a. 4.
The πρεσβύτης μακροπώγων
had a long
and floating beard, and likewise a crown of hair round his head; his
eyebrows were raised, but his whole aspect was that of a dull man. 5.
was that [p. 2.377]
of a man getting bald (ἀναφαλαντίας,
different from φαλακρός,
actually bald, Bekk. Anecd.
31), but it had a beard and raised eyebrows and
was of a grim appearance. The name of the mask was derived
either from an actor or a σκευοποιός,
as was also that called Λυκομήδειος,
No. 7. 6. The σφηνοπώγων,
bearded mask, was likewise bald, had raised eyebrows, and looked rather
). 7. The
(cf. No. 5) had a
thick long beard and had one eyebrow raised, as if absorbed in business.
8. The πορνοβοσκὸς
was somewhat like
the latter, but his lips
Comic Mask for an old man.
were contorted to a grin, his eyebrows contracted, and his
head either bald or getting bald. 9. The δεύτερος
had a pointed beard, but otherwise no hair.
The annexed comic mask, representing an old man, is taken from the
vol. i. tab. A.
2. Comic masks for young men
eleven masks of this kind. 1. The πάγχρηστος
formed the transition from the old to the young
men; he had but few wrinkles on his forehead, showed a muscular
), was rather
red in the face, and slightly sun-burnt (ὑποκεχρωσμένος
); the upper part of his head was bald,
his hair was red, and his eyebrows raised. 2. The νεανίσκος μέλας
was younger than the preceding one, and
with low eyebrows. He represented a young man of good education and fond
of gymnastic exercises. 3. The νεανίσκος
or the thick-haired young man, was young and
handsome, and of a blooming countenance, his eyebrows were extended, and
there was only one wrinkle upon his forehead. 4. The νεανίσκος ἁπαλός
: his hair was like that
of the πάγχρηστος,
but he was the
youngest of all, and represented a tender and effeminate youth. 5. The
or rustic young man, had
a dark complexion, broad lips, a pug-nose, and a crown of hair round his
head. 6. The ἐπίσειστος στρατιώτης
was of dark complexion, and had long dark hair waving about. This would
be the mask of the Miles Gloriosus. 7. The ἐπίσειστος δεύτερος
was the same as the preceding,
only younger and of a fair complexion. 8. The κόλαξ
or the flatterer, and 9. the παράσιτος
or parasite, were dark (compare Athen. 6.237
), and had
aquiline noses. Both presented a luxurious and well-fed appearance
); the parasite, however,
had broken ears, was merry-looking, and had a wicked expression about
his eyebrows. 10. The εἰκονικός
like a statue) had a few grey hairs spread over his head, a close-shaved
chin: the wearer was got up in splendid attire (εὐπάρυφος
) and represented a stranger. He could also
act a kind of parasite. Böttiger thinks we should read Σικυωνικός.
11. The Σικελικὸς
was a third kind of parasite.
3. Comic masks for male slaves
(149, 150).--Of this class
seven masks are mentioned. 1. The mask representing a very old man was
: it had grey hair, and
indicated that he had obtained his liberty. 2. The ἡγεμὼν θεράπων
had his red hair plaited, raised
eyebrows, and a contracted forehead. He was among slaves the same
character as the πρεσβύτης
freemen. 3. The κάτω τριχίας,
bald-headed, had red hair and raised eyebrows. 4. The οὖλος θεράπων,
or the thick-haired slave,
had red hair and a red countenance; he was without eyebrows, half-bald,
and with squinting eyes. 5. The θεράπων
was bald-headed and had red hair. Μαίσων
was a character in a farce, like
Maccus in the Atellanae, though Athenaeus (14.659
) and Festus (s. v. Moeson
) say he was an
actor. 6. The θεράπων τέττιξ
bald-headed and dark, but had two or three slips of hair on his head and
on his chin, and he also had squinting eyes. Why he was called τέττιξ
is not plain. Athenaeus (l.c.
) says, ἐκάλουν οἱ
παλαιοὶ τὸν μὲν πολιτικὸν μάγειρον Μαίσωνα, τὸν δ᾽ἐκτόπιον
7. The ἐπίσειστος
or the audacious slave, resembled the ἡγεμὼν θεράπων
with the exception of the
4. Comic masks for old women
(150, 151).--Pollux mentions
three, viz.: 1. The γραΐδιον ἰσχνὸν
the wolfish old woman,
who was tall with many but small wrinkles, pale, and with squinting
eyes. 2. The παχεῖα γραῦς,
or the old
woman with large wrinkles, and a band round her head keeping the hair
together. 3. The γραΐδιον οἰκουρόν,
or the domestic old woman. Her cheeks were hollow, and she had only two
teeth on each side of her mouth.
5. Comic masks for young women
fourteen, viz.: 1. The γυνὴ λεκτική,
or the talking woman; her hair was smoothly combed down, the eyebrows
rather raised, and the complexion white. 2. The γυνὴ οὔλη
was distinguished from the preceding only by
the way she wore her hair. 3. The κόρη
had her hair combed smoothly, had high and black eyebrows, and a white
complexion. 4. The ψευδοκόρη
whiter complexion than the former, her hair was bound up on the top of
the head, and she was intended to represent a young woman who had been
lately married. 5. Another mask of the same name was only distinguished
from the former by the fact that the hair was not divided (τῷ ἀδιακρίτῳ τῆς κόμης
). 6. The
woman who had once been a prostitute, and whose hair was partly grey. 7.
resembled the former, but
had a better head of hair (περίκομος
8. The τέλειον ἑταιρικὸν
was more red
in the [p. 2.378]
face than the ψευδοκόρη,
and had locks about her ears. 9. The ὡραῖον ἑταιρίδιον
was less got up
), and wore a band
fastened round her head. 10. The διάχρυσος
derived the name from the gold with which her
hair was adorned. 11. The διάμιτρος
from the variegated band wound around her head. 12.
from the circumstance of
her hair being dressed in such a manner that it stood upright upon the
head in the form of a lampas. 13. The ἁβρὰ
represented a young female slave with her hair
cut round (περικεκαρμένον
only a white tucked--up chiton. 14. The παράψηστον
(with straight hair) was that of a slave
distinguished by her hair, and by a somewhat snub-nose: she wore a
crocus-coloured chiton and represented an hetaera's servant.
It will be seen from the foregoing list that the chief points of
distinction in the masks lay in the colour of the face, in the colour
and arrangement of the hair, in the size of the ὄγκος,
and in the eyebrows. It is to be noticed that
the iris as well as the whites of the eyes must have been represented in
the mask, as e. g. the διφθερίας
1) is said to have had ὀφθαλμοὺς
(2.1, 1) to have been τὴν
(2.4, 1) to have had squinting eyes, &c.
Also it is to be noticed that the teeth are very rarely found in masks,
and only once mentioned in Pollux's list (the γραΐδιον οἰκουρόν,
Numerous as these masks are, the list cannot by any means be considered
as complete, for we know that there were other standing masks for
persons following particular kinds of trade, which are not mentioned in
Pollux. Maeson of Megara, for example, is said to have invented a
peculiar mask called after his own name μαίσων,
another for a slave, and a third to represent a cook
Compare Lucian, Salt.
27, for reference to special masks
for cooks. These were a most prominent class in the New Comedy. From
) we also learn that Stephanus of
Byzantium wrote a work περὶ προσώπων.
III. Masks used in the Satyric Drama (141).
The masks used in this species of the Greek drama were intended to
Masks in British Museum.
Silenus, and similar companions of Dionysus, whence the expressions of
the countenances and the form of their heads may easily be imagined. The
other characters wore the ordinary tragic masks. Pollux only mentions
the grey-headed Satyr, the bearded Satyr, the unbearded Satyr, and the
The latter (who
perhaps occurs in the Cyclops
) represented an old man,
probably bald (Eur. Cycl. 227
like a brute (θηριωδέστερον
appear to have been more than one kind of Silenus (Xen. Symp. 4
, 19). All the Satyric characters
appear to have had the ordinary snub-nose and pointed ears of Satyrs.
The dress of the Silenus was called χορταῖος
(Poll. 4.118). A grotesque mask of a Satyr,
together with one of the finest specimens of a tragic mask, is contained
in the Townley Gallery in the British Museum, and is represented here.
Another Satyric mask, probably that of the Silenus, is also reproduced
Satyric Mask in front and profile, found in a grave at
from Müller, fig. 20, i. = Baumeister. fig. 1630.
As regards the earliest representations of the regular drama among the
Romans, it is expressly stated by Diomedes (1.489, 10 Keil), that masks
were not used, but merely the galerus or wig, so that the colour of the
hair alone indicated in a way who the character was, according as it was
white (for the old), black (for the young), or red (for slaves). In the
time of Terence there appear to have been no masks used [cf. such a
scene as Ter. Phorm.
1.4, 32 ff., and the numerous
passages in which a remark is said to be made voltu
3.3, 20) given by Hoffer, de
personarum usu in Terentii Comoediis,
23-30, cf. 34]; and
it was not till about 110 B.C. that Roscius, as he was not good-looking
and had a squint, and his manager Minucius Prothymus, introduced them
into tragedy. One Cincius Faliscus is said to have introduced them into
comedy (Diomed., l.c.;
Donat. de Com. et
p. 10, 1, Reiff.); it. was some time, however, before
they met with approval (Cic. de Orat.
, 221). Aesopus sometimes acted without a mask (Cic. de Div. 1.3. 7
It should, however, be remembered that masks had been used long before
that time in the Atellanae (Fest. s. v. Personata
), so that the innovation of Roscius must have been
confined to the regular drama; that is, to tragedy and comedy. As for
the forms of Roman masks, it may be presumed that, being introduced from
Greece at so late a period, they had the
same defects as those used in Greece at the time when the arts were in
their decline, and this supposition is confirmed by all works of art,
and the paintings of Herculaneum and Pompeii, in which masks are
represented; for the masks appear unnaturally distorted and the mouth
always wide open. The expressions of Roman writers also support this
supposition. (Gellius, 5.7
; Juv. 3.175
.) We may mention here that some of
the oldest MSS. of Terence contain representations of Roman masks, and
from these MSS. they have been copied in several modern editions of that
poet, as in the edition published at Urbino in 1726, fol., and in that
of Dacier. The cut annexed contains representations of four of these
masks prefixed to the Andria.
When actors at Rome displeased their audience and were hissed, they were
obliged to take off their masks; but those who acted in the Atellanae
were not obliged to do so (Fest. s. v. Personata
). The Roman mimes never wore masks.
Ficoroni, Dissertatio de Larvis scenicis et Figuris comicis ant.
Rome 1786 and 1750, 4to; Fr. Stieve,
Dissertatio de rei scenicae apud Romanos Origine;
Witzschel in Pauly, 5.1373-1380, s. v. Persona;
F. Wieseler, Theatergebäude und
Denkmäler des Bühnenwesens;
pp. 199-205; A.
Müller, Die Griechischen
270-289; Bernard Arnold
in Baumeister's Denkmäler,
Lustspiel, Satyrspiel, Schauspieler und