a linen handkerchief, carried in the hand or in the
answering to our
pocket-handkerchief, but primarily intended, as the word implies, to wipe
the sweat from the brow or face (Quint. Inst.
). It was a comparatively modern introduction, when fine linen
came into use at Rome, which may be placed in the time of Cicero (Cic. Ver. 5.56, 146
; Hehn, Kulturpflanzen,
146): with this agree the
mention of the sudarium being used by Vatinius (Quintil. l.c.
) and the sudaria Saetaba
Spanish linen) spoken of by Catullus (12
). The word is borrowed by Hellenistic writers as
(Luke 19.20), for which
Pollux (7.71) says that the older names were ἡμιτύβιον
) and καψιδρώτιον.
The later name
at Rome was orarium
48), and other less common names are found, such as
Besides its use for wiping the face, it was worn round the neck (Petron. 67;
Suet. Nero 51
), and was in the later
period (as orarium
) waved in the circus to
signify applause (Vopisc. l.c.,
cf. κατασείειν ταὶς ὀθόναις ἐν θεάτροις
: Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 7.30
), for which
the lappet of the toga had formerly served (Ov. Am.
that it was used to wipe the nose, which operation, he says, was performed
in “the most primitive fashion.” It is difficult to prove or
disprove this as a universal rule; and the passage which he cites from Mart. 7.37
is capable of either interpretation.
The word emungo
may imply the use of a
handkerchief or the hand alone, the latter probably in Plautus, and
certainly in Anth. Pal.
7.134, D. L.
: but it may be questioned whether the use of the
pocket-handkerchief was not coming in under the Empire, and the passage in
Auct. ad Herenn.
4.54, 67, seems to imply this even for the
late Republic: that it was so in the time of Arnobius is clear from the
etymology of the word mucinium,
which (2.23) he