), any machine for raising water.
[COCHLEA; GIRGILLUS; ROTA AQUARIA; SIPHO; TOLLENO;
TYMPANUM.] The figure on the next column shows a machine which is
still used in Tyrol and other Alpine countries. As the current puts the
wheel in motion, the jars on its margin are successively immersed and filled
with water. When they reach the top, the water is sent into a trough, from
which it is conveyed to a distance, and chiefly used for irrigation.
) mentions a machine
constructed on this principle: “Ut fluvios versare rotas atque haustra
In situations where the water was at rest, as in a pond or a well, or where
the current was too slow and feeble to put the machine in motion, it was
constructed so as to be wrought by animal force, and slaves or criminals
were commonly employed for the purpose (in antliam
[p. 1.129]Suet. Tib. 51
Five such machines are described by Vitruvius, in addition to that
Machine for raising water in Tyrol.
which has been already explained, and which, as he observes, was
turned sine operarum calcatura, ipsius fluminis
These five (on which details will be found sub vocc.
) were, 1, the tympanum,--a tread-wheel,
wrought hominibus calcantibus:
2, a wheel
) resembling that in the preceding
figure, but having, instead of pots, wooden boxes or buckets (modioli quadrati
), so arranged as to form steps for
those who trod the wheel: 3, the chain-pump (tolleno
): 4, the cochlea,
Archimedes' screw: and 5, the ctesibica machina,
forcing-pump. (Vitr. 10.4
; Drieberg, Pneum. Erfindungen der Griechen,
On the other hand, the antlia with which Martial (9.18
) watered his garden was probably
the pole and bucket universally employed in Italy, Greece, and Egypt. The
pole is curved, as shown in the annexed figure; because it is the
Bucket for raising water.
stem of a fir, or some other tapering tree. The bucket, being
attached to the top of the tree, bends it by its weight; and the thickness
of the other extremity serves as a counterpoise. The great antiquity of this
method of raising water is proved by representations of it in Egyptian
paintings. (Wilkinson, Manners and Cust. of Anc. Egypt.
2.1-4; see also Pitt. d'Ercolano,
vol. i. p. 257.)