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1. A cap worn by the flamines and salii at Rome. The essential part of the apex, to which alone the name properly belonged, was a pointed piece of olive-wood, the base of which was surrounded with a lock of wool. This was worn on the top of the head, and was held there either by fillets only, or, as was more commonly the case, by the aid of a cap which fitted the head, and was also fastened by means of two strings or bands, which were called apicula or offendices (Festus, s. vv.), though the latter word is also interpreted to mean a kind of button, by which the strings were fastened under the chin. (Comp. Serv. ad Aen. 2.683; viii, 664; 10.270.)

The flamines were forbidden by law to go into public, or even into the open air, without the apex (Gel. 10.15), and hence we find the expression of alicui apicem dialem imponere used as equivalent to the appointment of a flamen dialis. (Liv. 6.41.) Sulpicius was deprived of the priesthood, only because the apex fell from his head whilst he was sacrificing. (V. Max. 1.1.4.)

Dionysius (2.70) describes the cap as being of a conical form. On ancient monuments we see it round as well as conical. From its various forms, as shown on bas-reliefs and on coins of the Roman emperors, who as priests were entitled to wear it, we have selected six for the annexed woodcut. The middle figure is

Apices, or caps worn by the Flamines and Salii.

from a bas-relief, showing one of the salii with a rod in his right hand. The Albogalerus, or albus galerus, was a white cap worn by the flamen dialis, made of the skin of a white [p. 1.136]victim sacrificed to Jupiter, and had the apex fastened to it by means of a olive-twig. (Festus, s. v. Albogalerus; Gel. 10.15.)

2. Hence used in wider senses as (a) the ridge on the helmet to which the crest was attached (Verg. A. 10.270, 12.492; Isidor. Orig. 18.14, 2). (b) The τιάρα ὀρθὴ of the Persian king (Hor. Od. 1.34, 14; 3.21, 20). (c) A hat (Cic. Leg. i. 1).

Apex is derived from the old verb apere, “to join” (Serv. ad Aen. 10.270, and Festus), and from it was formed the epithet apicatus, applied to the flamen dialis by Ovid (Ov. Fast. 3.197).

[J.Y] [J.H.F]

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