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CA´LIGA a strong and heavy shoe, or rather sandal, worn by the Roman soldiers. Although the use of this species of calceamentum extended to the centurions, it was not worn by the superior officers. Hence the common soldiers, including centurions, were distinguished by the name of caligati (Suet. Aug. 25, Vitell. 7; οἱ ἀπὸ κάλεγος, Dig. 27, 1, 10). Service in the ranks was also designated after this article of attire. Thus Marius was said to have risen to the consulship a caliga, i.e. from the ranks (Sen. de Benef. 5.16), and Ventidius juventam inopem in caliga militari tolerasse (Plin. Nat. 7.135). The Emperor Caligula received that cognomen when a boy, in consequence of wearing the caliga, which his father Germanicus put on his son in order to please the soldiers. (Tac. Ann. 1.41; manipularis habitus, Suet. Calig. 9.) The triumphal monuments of Rome show most distinctly the difference between the caliga of the common soldier and the calceus worn by men of higher rank. When Cicero says of “Epicrates,” i. e. Pompey, “mihi caligae ejus non placebant” (ad Att. 2.3), a breach of the convenances is implied. The caliga exhibits a number of straps, through which the foot is partially seen, as in the figure of the Roman soldier from the Arch of Severus, engraved under ARMA; while the CALCEUS is an ordinary closed shoe. The sole of the caliga was thickly studded with hobnails (clavi caligarii, Plin. Nat. 34.143; caligares, id. 9.69: cf. Juv. Sat. 3.248, 322, 16.24; ἧλοι, Jos. B. J. 6.1, 8).

The caliga speculatoria (Suet. Calig. 52), made for the use of couriers [SPECULATOR], was probably much lighter than the ordinary shoe worn by the soldiers.

[J.Y] [W.W]

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