1. In its primary sense, cella
store-room ( “Ubi quid conditum esse volebant, a celando cellam
appellarunt,” Varro, L. L.
5.162), of which the
following were the principal descriptions:--Cella
where all kinds
of provisions (penus
) were stored, especially
those of which a stock was laid in for a long time (Varro, l.c.;
Cic. de Sen.
2.2, 5; Suet. Aug. 6
; Dig. 32
); cella promptuaria, promptuarium,
the larder, where meat and other things
required for immediate consumption were kept (Plaut. Amph.
1.1, 4; Cat. Agr. 11
; Tert. Resurr.
); Apul. Apol.
the magazine of an
olive-yard in which the oil was stored, and which, according to the
treatises on farming, ought to be lighted from the south, that the oil might
not be chilled in winter, while the cella
should have a northern aspect, to avoid excessive heat and
great changes. of temperature (Cato, Cat. Agr.
, where the equipment of the cella
is described; Varro, R. R.
1.20; Columella, 1.6, 12.50; Vitr. 1.4
). The cella vinaria
described in the above-cited authors is the store-room of a vineyard, in
which the new wine was kept in dolia
while older wine was put into
and matured in the apotheca.
was partly under-ground (Becker-Göll, Gallus,
iii. pp. 51, 422). The cella vinaria
of a wine-merchant was discovered in 1789 under
the walls of Rome. It was raised a little above the level of the ground, and
divided into three compartments, the first ornamented with arabesques and a
mosaic pavement, the second unpaved and containing a row of very large
two-thirds imbedded in sand, while
the third was a narrow gallery, 6 ft. high and 18 ft. long, with various
earthenware vessels, also partially sunk in the sand and ranged in double
rows against each wall.
The slave to whom the charge of these stores was intrusted was called
iv, 2, 115; Sen. Ep.
5732, 6287), a rationibus
(Orelli, 2891), or promus
; Hor. Sat.
2.2, 16), and sometimes promus
and procurator peni
2.2, 14), who had under him a subpromus
(Plaut. Mil. Glor.
3, 2, 24). This
answers to our butler and housekeeper.
Under the empire all the provisions required for a Roman camp were preserved
in a cellarium
(Cod. Theod. 1, 10, 3;
Marquardt, Röm. Alterth.
v. p. 225).
2. Any number of small rooms clustered together like the cells of a honeycomb
(Verg. G. 4.164
1.433), and the niches of a dovecote or poultry-house (Col. 8.8
) were also termed cellae.
Hence the name was applied to the
dormitories of slaves and menials (Cic. Phil.
; Hor. Sat.
1.8, 8; Becker-Göll, Gallus,
i. p. 276), to the bedrooms of an inn (Petr. Sat.
29; 77, 4), and to the vaults of a brothel
(Petron. 8, 4; Juv. 6.128
). The price of each
female was inscribed: hence cella inscripta
means a brothel (Mart. 11.45
used of a poor man's garret (Mart. 7.20
). Hence the phrase pauperum
denotes the small apartments of affected
simplicity to which the rich Roman of the empire sometimes retired to take
refuge from the ennui of luxury (Sen. Ep.
18, 7; 100, 6;
Cons. ad Helv.
12: cf. Mart.
; Becker-Göll, Gallus,
p. 115). Cell ostiarii
; Petron. 29), or janitoris
16), is the porter's lodge.
3. In the baths the cella caldaria, tepidaria,
were those which contained
respectively the warm, tepid, and cold bath. [BALNEAE
4. The interior of a temple--that is, the part included within the outside
(see the lower woodcut in ANTAE
)--was also called cella
; Cic. Phil. 3.12