, a helmet of very simple form,
fitting close like a skull-cap, made of leather or the skins of wild animals
(Sil. Ital. 8.493
). It is probably to be identified with
the Homeric καταῖτυξ
or helmet of Diomedes
10.258), described as ἄφαλον,
“without knobs or projections” (Leaf), and ἄλοφον,
“without plume or horse-hair crest:” known also from Greek
representations of that hero, from one of which in bronze the annexed
example is taken.
The cudo differed from the galerus
(Verg. A. 7.688
) in being of lessrough and
shaggy fur: it probably answered to the λιτὸν
of the Roman velites
). In the sculptures
on the Column of Trajan, some of the Roman soldiers are
represented with the skin of a wild beast drawn over the head, in such a
manner that the face appears between the upper and lower jaws of the animal,
while the rest of the skin falls down behind over the back and shoulders, as
described by Virgil (Aen.
7.666). This, however, was an extra
defence (Polyb. l.c.
), and must not be taken for the
cudo, which was the cap itself; that is, a particular kind of galea
]. In the illustration the cudo is seen fastened with a strap
under the chin; this is the ὀχεὺς
(Hom. Il. 3.372
). (Rich, s.v. and for
the Homeric helmet, Leaf in Journ. Hellen. Soc.