), a name given to a class of cultivators in Attica
before the time of Solon.
We have examples, among the unenfranchised classes in Greece, of
agriculturists who had to pay a fixed quantity of produce and take all the
risks of bad seasons: such were the Perioeci and Helots in Laconia [DECUMAE
]. We also find what is
now known as the métayer
which landlord and tenant divide the produce in a certain proportion. The
landlord's share was called μορτή,
held under métairie
was ἐπίμορτος γῆ
(Pollux, 7.151, quoting Solon).
who, according to some ancient authorities,
paid a sixth portion to their masters and retained five-sixths for
themselves (Plut. Sol. 13
; hesych. sub voce
): according to others, they
received only a sixth part (hesych. sub voce
: Phot. s. v. πελάται
: Eustath. ad
Hom. Od. 19.28
, p. 1854). The correctness of
the latter view, first insisted upon by Schömann
p. 362), is now generally admitted; had the
tenants paid only a sixth, they would have been much better off than the
landowners, whereas all the accounts testify to a state of oppression to
which Solon applied a remedy. Boeckh, who in his first edition (P.
p. 494) held that the cultivators paid the sixth part, afterwards
came round to the opinion of Schömann (Sthh.
3 1.578). The ἑκτημόριοι
belonged to the class of θῆτες,
though probably not all θῆτες
1.323 n.). They were also
sometimes called πελάται,
i. e. clients or
dependents (Plat. Euthyphr.
4 C, with Schol.).
p. 362; Antiq. Jur.
p. 169; Antiq.
1.323, E. T.; Hermann,
§ 100 n. 16, 101 n. 10;
Büchsenschütz, Besitz und Erwerb,
p. 49 f.;
For the Roman mëtayers,
p. 60 a;
and cf. Gaius, Inst.
2.254, and ap. Dig.
; pecora partiaria,
i.e. the same system applied to
the increase of cattle, Cod. Just. 2
. The following
passage confirms the view taken in the text: καὶ δὴ
καὶ ἐδούλευον οἱ πένητε[ς τοῖς] πλουσίοις καὶ αὐτοὶ [καὶ τ]ὰ
τέκνα καὶ αἱ γυναῖκες, καὶ ἐκαλοῦντο πελάται καὶ ἑκτημόροι:
[ἐπὶ] ταύτης γὰρ τῆς μισθώσεως [εἰ]ργάζοντο τῶν πλουσίων τοὺς
Thus the ἑκτημόριοι
(the latter form, given also by
Hesychius, seems the correct one) received
sixth part of the produce: ἀντί,
rather than ἐπί,
seems the preposition to