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SY´NDICUS

SY´NDICUS (σύνδικος), an advocate, is frequently used as synonymous with the word [p. 2.744]συνήγορος, to denote any one who pleads the cause of another, whether in a court of justice or elsewhere. Συνδικεῖν also is used indifferently with συνηγορεῖν or συναγωνίζεσθαι or συνειπεῖν (Andoc. de Myst. § 150;--Dem. c. Zenoth. p. 885.12; c. Steph. i. p. 1127.84; de Coron. Trierarch. p. 1232.16, etc.; c. Onet. i. p. 872.31; c. Mid. p. 576.190;--Hyper. pro Eux. 100.25; [Dem.] c. Dionysod. p. 1298.50, etc.). The state or a corporation or a private individual might be represented by them. Thus, the five (Dem. c. Timocr. p. 707.23, lex) public advocates, who were appointed to defend the ancient laws before the Nomothetae, when new laws in their stead .were proposed, are called σύνδικοι (Dem. c. Lept. p. 501.146; only four names are given, but as Wolf, Proleg. p. 145, suggests, that of Leptines must be added) or συνήγοροι (Dem. c. Timocr. p. 711.36). The same name was applied to those orators who were sent by the state to plead the cause of their countrymen before a foreign tribunal. Aeschines, for example, was appointed to plead before the Amphictyonic council on the subject of the Delian temple, but for some reason (Philostr. Vitt. Soph. 1.18, 4) the council of Areiopagus removed him, and appointed Hypereides in his stead (Dem. de Cor. p. 271.134, (σύνδικος: [Plut.] Vitt. X. Oratt. p. 840 E, συνήγορος). These extraordinary advocates are not to be confounded with the Pylagorae, or ordinary Amphictyonic deputies (Schömann, do Com. p. 321). To such σύνδικοι refers the law (Dem. c. Lept. p. 503.152): μὴ ἐξεῖναι ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου χειροτονηθέντα πλέον ἅπαξ συνδικῆσαι: see also Aeschin. c. Tim. § 19, ἄν τις Ἀθηναίων ἑταιρήσῃ . . . μηδὲ συνδικησάτω τῷ δημοσίῳ.--The Demarchus and σύνδικοι appear as accusers of defaulters before a court of Demotae (Lolling, Mitth. d. d. archäol. Inst. iv. p. 203: cf. p. 196). Σύνδικοι, annually elected, took part in the δοκιμασία of new members of an ἔρανος (C. I. A. iii. No. 23).--A private individual either chose such advocates himself or his fellow-tribesmen chose them for him (Andoc. de Myst. § 150, οἱ φυλέται οἱ ᾑρημένοι μοι συνδικεῖν; Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 689.206; Hyper. pro Eux. 100.26, δέκα συνηγόρους ἐκ τῆς Αἰγηίδος φυλῆς ᾐτήσω).

Σύνδικοι was also the name of extraordinary functionaries at Athens, appointed soon after the overthrow of the Thirty Tyrants, who exercised jurisdiction in disputes concerning confiscated property (Harpocr. s. v. πρὸς οὓς τὰ δημευόμενα ἀπεφέρετο, etc.), e. g. when an information was laid against a man for having in his possession goods which were liable to be seized in execution on behalf of the state (Lys. de Bon. Aristoph. § 32), or when somebody's property having been confiscated, a claim was made by a mortgagee or other creditor having a lien thereupon, to have his debt satisfied out of the proceeds (Lys. de Pecun. publ.), or by the wife to have her dowry returned (Att. Process, ed. Lipsius, p. 525, n. 127). Such a claim was called ἐνεπίσκημμα, and to prosecute it ἐνεπισκήψασθαι ([Dem.] c. Timoth. p. 1197 f., § 45 f.; Harpocr. s. v., etc.). One of the duties of these σύνδικοι was to receive informations from the (φύλαρχοι against those persons who had served in the cavalry under the Thirty Tyrants, and who by a special decree of the people were ordered to restore to the treasury the κατάοτασις, i. e. the sum paid to them by the state for their equipment (Lys. pro Mantith. § 7); from this passage it would appear that such money was as a rule not paid back (Boeckh, Sthh. i.3 p. 319 f.; Grote, Hist. of Gr. viii. p. 106, differs from this view). (Att. Process, ed. Lipsius, p. 921, n. 443; pp. 123-125;--Schöll, Quaest. Fisc. Jur. Att.

About the σύνδικοι in Orchomenus, see Keil, Syll. i. B, p. 15: in Sparta, Boeckh, C. I. G. i. p. 610; Marquardt, Röm. Staatsverw. i. p. 522.

[C.R.K] [H.H]

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