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INGAUNI

Eth. INGAUNI (Eth. Ἰφφαυνοι), a Ligurian tribe, who inhabited the sea-coast and adjoining mountains, at the foot of the Maritime Alps, on the W. side of, the Gulf of Genoa. Their position is clearly identified by that of their capital or chief town, Albium Ingaunum, still called Albenga. They appear to have been in early times one of the most powerful and warlike of the Ligurian tribes, and bear a prominent part in the long-continued wars of the Romans with that people. Their name is first mentioned in B.C. 205, on occasion of the landing of Mago, the brother of Hannibal, in Liguria. They were at that time engaged in hostilities with the Epanterii, a neighbouring tribe who appear to have dwelt further inland: the Carthaginian general concluded an alliance with them, and supported them against the mountaineers of the interior; he subsequently returned to their capital after his defeat by the Romans in Cisalpine Gaul, and it was from thence that he took his final departure for Africa, B.C. 203. (Liv. 28.46, 30.19.) After the close of the Second Punic War, B.C. 201, a treaty was concluded with the Ingauni by the Roman consul, C. Aelius (Id. 31.2); but sixteen years later (in B.C. 185) we find them at war with the Romans, when their territory was invaded by the consul Appius Claudius, who defeated them in several battles, and took six of their towns. (Id. 39.32.) But four years afterwards, B.C. 181, they were still in arms, and were attacked for the second time by the proconsul Aemilius Paullus. This general was at first involved in great perils, the Ingauni having surprised and besieged him in his camp; but he ultimately obtained a great and decisive victory, in which 15,000 of the enemy were killed and 2500 taken prisoners. This victory procured to Aemilius the honour of a triumph, and was followed by the submission of the whole people of the Ingauni ( “Ligurum Ingaunorum omne nomen” ), while all the other Ligurians sent to Rome to sue for peace. (Liv. 40.25-28, 34.) From this time we hear nothing more of the Ingauni in history, probably on account of the loss of the later books of Livy; for that they did not long remain at peace with Rome, and that hostilities were repeatedly re.. newed before they were finally reduced to submission and settled down into the condition of Roman subjects, is clearly proved by the fact stated by Pliny, that their territory was assigned to them, and its boundaries fixed or altered, no less than thirty times. ( “Liguribus Ingaunis agro tricies dato,” Plin. Nat. 3.5. s. 6.) They appear to have been much addicted, in common with other maritime Ligurian tribes, to habits of piracy, a tendency which they retained down to a late period. (Liv. 40.28, 41; Vopisc. Procul. 12.) We find them still existing and recognised as a separate tribe in the days of [p. 2.54]Strabo and Pliny; but we have no means of fixing the extent or limits of their territory, which evidently comprised a considerable portion of the seacoast on each side of their capital city, and probably extended on the W. till it met that of the Intemelii. It must have included several minor towns, but their capital, of which the name is variously written Albium Ingaunum and Albingaunum, is the only town expressly assigned to them by ancient writers. [ALBIUM INGAUNUM] (Strab. iv.-p. 202; Plin. Nat. 3.5. s. 6.)

[E.H.B]

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