LI´NGONESEth. LI´NGONES (Eth. Λίγγονες). The form Eth. Λόγγωνες in Ptolemy (2.19.9) may probably be a copyist's error. In Polybius (2.17, ed. Bekker), Eth. Λίγγωνες is a correction of Αἴγωνες, which appears to be the MSS. reading, and was doubtless intended to be Eth. Λίγωνες. In the old text of Strabo (p. 186) it is said that the Arar (Saône) separates the Sequani from the Aedui and Eth. Lincasii (Eth. Λιγκασίοι); but it is agreed that we ought to read Lingones, for Strabo names the people Lingones in two other passages (pp. 193, 208). The Lingones occupied the country about the sources of the Marne and Seine, and extended eastward to the Voseges (Vosges) (B. G. 4.10). Caesar does not state expressly whether they belonged to Celtica or to Belgica, but we may infer from what he says that he considered them as included in Celtica [GALLIA TRANSALPINA Vol. I. p. 962]. Strabo (p. 193) says: “Above or beyond the Helvetii and Sequani, the Aedui and Lingones dwell to the west; and beyond the Mediomatrici dwell the Leuci and part of the Lingones.” But the Leuci, whose capital was Tullum (Toul), are between the Mediomatrici and the Lingones, and there is some error in this passage of Strabo. The chief town of the Lingones was Andomatunum, afterwards named Lingones, and in the old French, Langone or Langoinne, and now Langres, near the source of the Marne. Dibio (Dijon) was also in the territory of the Lingones, which corresponded to the diocese of Langres, before the diocese of Dijon was taken from it. Ptolemy (2.8) and Pliny (4.17) place the Lingones in Belgica, which was true of the time when they wrote. The Lingones were one of the Celtic nations, which, according to Roman tradition, sent a detachment to settle in North Italy. [See the next article.] Lucan (1.397) represents the Lingones as warlike, or fond of fighting, for which there is no evidence in Caesar at least:-- “Castraque quae Vosegi curvam super ardua rupem
Pugnaces pictis cohibebant Lingones armis.
” After Caesar had defeated the Helvetii in the great battle near Bibracte, the survivors fled into the country of the Lingones; “to whom Caesar sent letters and a message to inform them that they must not supply the Helvetii with corn, or help them in any way; and that if they did, he would treat them like the Helvetii.” (B. G. 1.26.) It is plain from Caesar's narrative that this insolent order was obeyed. When Caesar was at Vesontio (Besançon) on his march against Ariovistus, the Sequani, Leuci, and Lingones supplied him with corn (B. G. 1.40). During the winter which followed the campaign of B.C. 53, Caesar placed two legions in the country of the Lingones, not to keep them in obedience, for they never rose in arms against him, but because it was a good position (B. G. 6.44). It is stated in Tacitus (Tac. Hist. 1.78) that Otho gave the “civitas Romana” to all the Lingones: but this passage is not free from difficulty. Galba had lost the fidelity of the Treviri, Lingones, and some other Gallic states, by harsh measures or by depriving them of part of their lands; and the Lingones and others supported the party of Vitellius in Gallia by offering soldiers, horses, arms and money (Tacit. 1.53, 59). It seems that Otho made the Lingones a present of the “civitas” in order to effect a diversion in his favour; but it remains to be explained, if Tacitus's text is right, why he omitted the Treviri and others. Pliny calls the Lingones “Foederati.” This nation, which during the whole Gallic war was tranquil, even in the year of Vercingetorix's great struggle (B. G. 7.63), became very restless under the Empire, as we see from Tacitus (Tac. Hist. 4.67). [GALLIA TRANSALPINA Vol. I. p. 969.] [G.L]