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TENEDOS (Τένεδος: Eth. Τενέδιος: Tenedo, Turk. Bogdsha-Adassi), an island off the coast of Troas, from which its distance is only 40 stadia, while from Cape Sigeum it is 12 miles distant. (Strab. xiii. p.604; Plin. Nat. 2.106, 5.39.) It was originally called Leucophrys, from its white cliffs, Calydna, Phoenice, or Lyrnessus (Strab. l.c.; Paus. 10.14.3; Steph. B. sub voce Τένεδος; Eustath. ad Hom. Il. p. 33; Plin. l.c.), and was believed to have received the name of Tenedos from Tennes, a son of Cycnus (Strab. viii. p.380; Diod. 5.83; Conon, Narrat. 28; Cic. in Verr. 1.19). The island is described as being 80 stadia in circumference, and containing a town of the same name, which was an Aeolian settlement, and situated on the eastern coast. (Hdt. 1.149; Thuc. 7.57.) The town possessed two harbours, one of which was called Βόρειον (Arrian, Arr. Anab. 2.2.2; Scylax, p. 35, who, however, notices only one), and a temple of the Smynthian Apollo. (Strab. l.c.; Hom. Il. 1.38, 452.) In the Trojan legend, the island plays a prominent part, and at an early period seems to have been a place of considerable importance, as may be inferred from certain ancient proverbial expressions which owe their origin to it, such as Τενέδιος πέλεκυς (Steph. B. sub voce Apostol. 18.28; Diogenian. 8.58; comp. Cic. ad Quint. Frat. 2.1. 1), Τενέδιος ἄνθρωπος (Zenob. 6.9; Eustath. ad Dionys. 536), Τενέδιος αὑλητής (Steph. B. sub voce Plut. Quaest. Gr. 28), Τενέδιον κακόν (Apostol. 10.80), and Τενέδιος ξυνήγορος (Steph. B. sub voce. The laws and civil institutions of Tenedos seem to have been celebrated for their wisdom, if we may credit Pindar, whose eleventh Nemean ode is inscribed to Aristagoras, a prytanis or chief magistrate of the island. We further know from Stephanus B. that Aristotle wrote on the polity of Tenedos. During the Persian wars the island was taken possession of by the Persians (Hdt. 6.31), and during the Peloponnesian War it sided with Athens and paid tribute to her (Thuc. l.c. 2.2), which seems to have amounted to 3426 drachmae every year. (Franz, Elem. Epigraph. n. 52.) Afterwards, in B.C. 389, Tenedos was ravaged by the Lacedaemonians for its fidelity to Athens (Xen. Hist. Gr. 5.1. 6); but though the peace of Antalcidas gave up the island to Persia, it yet maintained its connection with Athens. (Demosth. c. Polycl. p. 1223, c. Theocr. p. 1333.) In the time of Alexander the Great, the Tenedians threw off the Persian yoke, and, though reconquered by Pharnabazus, they soon again revolted from Persia. (Arrian, Arr. Anab. 2.2, 3.2.) During the wars of Macedonia with the Romans, Tenedos, owing to its situation near the entrance of the Hellespont, was an important naval station. (Plb. 16.34, 27.6; Liv. 31.16, 44.28.) In the war against Mithridates, Lucullus fought a great naval battle near Tenedos. (Plut. Luc. 3; Cic. p. Arch. 9, p. Mur. 15.) In the time of Virgil, Tenedos seems to have entirely lost its ancient importance, and, being conscious of their weakness, its inhabitants had placed themselves under the protection of Alexandria Troas (Paus. 10.14.4). The favourable situation of the island, however, prevented its utter decay, and the emperor Justinian caused granaries to be erected in it, to receive the supplies of corn conveyed from Egypt to Constantinople. (Procop. de Aed. 5.1.) The women of Tenedos are reported to have been of surpassing beauty. (Athen. 13.609.) There are but few ancient remains in the island worthy of notice. (Chandler, Travels in Asia Minor, p. 22; Prokesch, [p. 2.1127]Denkwürdigkeiten, i. p. 111, foll.; Hemmer, Respublica Tenediorum, Hafniae, 1735.)



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