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CA´MACHA (Κάμαχα: Kemákh),astrong fortress of Armenia, called in Armenian GAMAKH, and also ANI, was well known in history, but it was not till lately that its site could be identified. Mr. Brant (Journ. Geog. Soc. vol. vi. p. 203) places it at about 26 miles SW. from Ersingán, on the left bank of the W. Euphrates (Kará--Sú). It is a singular place; an elevated portion of the town is within a wall of very ancient structure, but commanded by mountains rising close to it. The remainder is situated on a slope amidst gardens ascending from the river bank. It enclosed a celebrated temple of the god Aramazd, containing a great number of literary monuments, which were destroyed by the orders of St. Gregory of Armenia. Here were deposited the treasures of the Armenian kings, as well as many of their tombs: hence the name,--the word Gamackh signifying “a corpse.” The Byzantine emperors kept a strong garrison here to defend the eastern part of their empire from the attacks of the Moslems, up to the commencement of the 11th century.

(Comp. Const. Porph. de Adm. Imp. 50; St. Martin, Mém. sur l'Armenie, vol. i. p. 72; Ritter, Erdkunde, vol. x. p. 782; Chesney, Exped. Euphrat. vol. i. p. 41.)


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