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GADITANUM FRETUM (Straits of Gibraltar), the well-known channel connecting the Mediterranean and Atlantic [ATLANTICUIM MARE], and separating the continents of Europe and Libya, only needs a notice in a work on ancient, as distinguished from general, geography, for the sake of recording the many different names by which it was known to the Greeks and Romans. These are collected as follows by Ukert, who gives ample references to ancient authorities:--Fretum and Πορθμός, simply: Γαδειραῖος πορθμός: Ἡράκλειος πορθμός: Πορθμός or Πόρος κατὰ τὰς Ἡρακλείους στήλας: Στόμα καθ᾽ Ἡρακλείους στήλας: τὸ τῆς θάλαττης τῆς Ἀτλαντικῆς στόμα: Fretum Gaditanum: Fretum Herculeum: Fretum Tartessium: Fretum Iberum: Fretum Hispanum: Fretum nostri maris et Oceani: Ostium Oceani: Maris Ostium: Limen Interni Maris: Herculis Via or Herma: and lastly Fretum Septem, or Septe Gaditanum, or Septe simply, from the hills called Septem Fratres on the Libyan shore. (Ukert, Geogr. d. Griechen u. Römer, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 248b.) Its extent is sufficiently marked on the E. by the hills of ABYLA and CALPE the Pillars of Hercules, and on the S. side of its W. entrance by the promontory of AMPELUSIA; but the NW. point was variously placed [GADES], the proper position being the Pr. Junonis (C. Trafalgar).


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