CILICIAE, is placed by Stephanus (s. v. Ἀντιοχεία
) on the river Pyramus in Cilicia, and the Stadiasmus agrees with him. But Cramer observes (Asia Minor,
vol. ii. p. 353), that there are medals with the epigraph Ἀντιοχέων τῶν πρὸς τῶι Σάρωι,
by which the same place is probably meant, though, according to the medals, it was on the Sarus.
AD CRAGUM Ἀντιόχεια ᾿επὶ Κράγω, Ptol. 5.8.2
). Strabo (p. 669) mentions a rock Cragus on the coast of Cilicia, between the river Selinus and the fort and harbour of Charadrus. Appian (App. Mith. ch. 96
) mentions both Cragus and Anticragus in Cilicia as very strong forts; but there may be some error here. Beaufort (Karamania,
p. 193) conjectures that the site may be between Selinty
(the Charadrus of Strabo): he observed several columns there “whose shafts were single blocks of polished red granite.” A square cliff, the top of which projects into the sea, has been fortified.
There is also a flight of steps cut in the rock leading from the landing place to the gates.
AD MAEANDRUM (Ἀ. πρὸς Μαιάνδρω
), a small city on the Maeander, in Caria, in the part adjacent to Phrygia.
There was a bridge there.
The city had a large and fertile territory on both sides of the river, which was noted for its figs.
The tract was subject to earthquakes. (Strab. p. 630.) Pliny (5.29
) says that the town was surrounded by the Orsinus,--or Mosynus, as some read the name,--by which he seems to mean that it is in the angle formed by the junction of this small river with the Maeander. Hamilton (Researches, &c.,
vol. i. p. 529) fixes the position between 4 and 5 miles SE. of Kuyuja,
“and near the mouth of the rich valley of the Kara Sú,
which it commands, as well as the road to Ghera,
the ancient Aphrodisias.” The remains are not considerable. They consist of the massive walls of the Acropolis, and an inner castle in a rude and barbarous style, without any traces of Hellenic character; but there is a stadium built in the same style, and this seems to show the antiquity of both. East of the acropolis there are many remains of arches, vaults, and substructions of buildings.
There is also the site of a small theatre. (Comp. Fellows, Discoveries in Lycia,
Pliny says that Antiocheia is where the towns Seminethos (if the reading is right) and Cranaos were. Cranaos is an appropriate name for the site of Antiocheia. Stephanus (s. v. Ἀντιόχεια
) says that the original name of the place was Pythopolis, and that Antiochus son of Seleucus built a town here, which he named Antiocheia, after his mother Antiochis.
The consul Cn. Manlius encamped at Antiocheia (B.C. 189) on his march against the Galatae (Liv. 38.13
This city was the birthplace of Diotrephes
, a distinguished sophist, whose pupil Hybreas was the greatest rhetorician of Strabo's time.
There are numerous medals of this town of the imperial period.
), a city on both sides of the river Margus, in Margiana. (Pliny, 6.16
; Strab. p. 516.)
It is said to have been founded by Alexander, but his city having been destroyed by the barbarians, Antiochus I. Soter restored it, and gave to it his own name.
It lay in a fertile plain surrounded by deserts; and, to defend it against the barbarians, Antiochus surrounded the plain with a wall 1500 stadia in circuit (Strabo). Pliny, who seems to have referred to the same sources as Strabo, and perhaps to others also, states that the region is of great fertility, and surrounded by mountains; and he makes the circuit 1500 stadia, but omits to mention this great wall, which is probably a fiction.
The city was 70 stadia in circuit.
The river which [p. 1.147]
flowed between the two parts of the town was used for irrigation. Pliny adds that the soldiers of Crassus, whom Orodes took prisoners (Plut. Crass. 100.31
), were settled here.
The place appears to be Merv,
on the Murgh-aub,
the ancient Margus, where there are remains of an old town. Merv
lies nearly due north of Herat.
PISIDIAE (Ἀ. ἡ πρὸς τῇ Πισιδίᾳ, Ἀ. τῆς Πισιδίας, Act. Apost.
13.14), was situated on the S. side of the mountain boundary between Phrygia and Pisidia. Strabo (p. 577) places Philomelium on the north side of this range and close to it, and Antiocheia on the south. Akshehr
corresponds to Philomelium and Yalobatch
to Antiocheia. “The distance from Yalobatch
is six hours over the mountains, Akshehr
being exactly opposite.” (Hamilton, Researches, &c.,
vol. i. p. 472; Arundell, Discoveries, &c.,
vol. i. p. 281.) Strabo describes Philomelium as being in a plain, and Antiocheia on a small eminence; and this description exactly suits Akcshehr
Arundell first described the remains of Antiocheia, which are numerous.
He mentions a large building constructed of prodigious stones, of which the groundplan and the circular end for the bema were remaining.
He supposes this to have been a church.
There are the ruins of a wall; and twenty perfect arches of an aqueduct, the stones of which are without cement, and of the same large dimensions as those in the wall.
There are also the remains of a temple of Dionysus, and of a small theatre. Another construction is cut in the rock in a semicircular form, in the centre of which a mass of rock has been left, which is hollowed out into a square chamber. Masses of highly finished marble cornices, with several broken fluted columns, are spread about the hollow.
This place may have been the adytum of a temple, as the remains of a portico are seen in front; and it has been conjectured that if the edifice was a temple, it may be that of Men Arcaeus, who was worshipped at Antioch.
The temple had slaves. Hamilton copied several inscriptions, all Latin except one.
The site of this city is now clearly determined by the verification of the description of Strabo, and this fact is a valuable addition to our knowledge of the geography of Asia Minor.
Antiocheia is said to have been founded by a colony from Magnesia, on the Maeander. (Strabo.) The Romans, says Strabo, “released it from the kings, at the time when they gave the rest of Asia, within Taurus, to Eumenes.” The kings are the Syrian kings. After Antiochus III. was defeated by the Romans at Magnesia, B.C. 190, they enlarged the dominions of Eumenes II. king of Pergamus, and Antioch was included in the grant.
It afterwards came into the possession of the Romans, and was made a colony, with the title of Caesarea (Plin. Nat. 5.4
), a name which was given it apparently early in the imperial period. Hamilton found an inscription with the words ANTIOCHEAE CAESARE, the rest being effaced; and there is the same evidence on coins.
The name of the god MEN. or MENSIS also appears on coins of Antioch.
The most memorable event in the history of Antioch is the visit of Paul and Barnabas.
The place then contained a large number of Jews.
The preaching of Paul produced a great effect upon the Greeks, but the Jews raised a persecution against the Apostles, and expelled them from the town. They, however, paid it a second visit (Acts,
14.21), and confirmed the disciples.
Antioch was the capital of the Roman province Pisidia, and had the Jus Italicum. (Paulus, Dig. 50
. tit. 15. s. 8.)
AD TAURUM (Ἀ. πρὸς Ταύπψ
), is enumerated by Stephanus (s. v. Ἀντιόχεια
) among the cities of this name (Ἐπὶ τψ̂ Ταύρψ ἐν Κομμαγηνῇ
It is also mentioned by Ptolemy (5.10.10
There seems no sufficient evidence for fixing its position. Some geographers place it at Aintab,
about 70 miles N. by E. from Aleppo. [G.L