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APOLLO´NIA (Ἀπολλωνία: Eth. Ἀπολλωνιάτης, Eth. Apolloniates, Apollinas,--ātis, Eth. Apolloniensis), in Europe.


A city of Sicily, which, according to Steph. Byz., was situated in the neighbourhood of Aluntium Calacte. Cicero also mentions it (Or. in Verr. 3.43) and in conjunction with Haluntium, Capitium, and Enguium, in a manner that seems to imply that it was situated in the same part of Sicily with these cities; and we learn from Diodorus (16.72) that it was at one time subject to Leptines, the tyrant of Enguium, from whose hands it was wrested by Timoleon, and restored to an independent condition. A little later we find it again mentioned among the cities reduced by Agathocles, after his return from Africa, B.C. 307 (Diod. 20.56). But it evidently regained its liberty after the fall of the tyrant, and in the days of Cicero was still a municipal town of some importance. (Or. in Verr. 3.43, 5.33.) From this time it disappears from history, and the name is not found either in Pliny or Ptolemy.

Its site has been much disputed; but the passages above cited point distinctly to a position in the north-eastern part of Sicily; and it is probable that the modern Pollina, a small town on a hill, about 3 miles from the sea-coast, and 8 or 9 E. from Cefalù, occupies its site. The resemblance of name is certainly entitled to: much weight; and if Enguium be correctly placed at Gangi, the connexion between that city and Apollonia is easily explained. It must be admitted that the words of Stephanus require, in this case, to be construed with considerable latitude, but little dependence can be placed upon the accuracy of that writer.

The coins which have been published as of this city belong either to Apollonia, in Illyria, or to Tauromenium (Eckhel, vol. i. p. 198.) [E.H.B]


The name of two cities in Crete, one near Cnossus (Steph. B. sub voce the inhabitants of which were most treacherously treated by the Cydoniatae, who were their friends and allies. (Plb. 27.16.) The site is on the coast near Armyro, or perhaps approaching towards Megalo Kastron, at the Ghiófero. (Pashley, Crete, vol. i. p. 261.) The site of the other city, which was once called Eleuthera (Ἐλεύθερα, Steph. B. sub voce is uncertain. The philosopher Diogenes Apolloniates was a native of Apolloniates in Crete. (Dict. of Biog. s. v.) [E.B.J]


Pollína, or Pollóna), a city of Illyria, situated 10 stadia from the right bank of the Aous, and 60 stadia from the sea (Strab. vii. p.316), or 50 stadia according to Scylax (p. 10). It was founded by the Corinthians and Corcyraeans in the seventh century before the Christian era, and is said to have been originally called Gylaceia (Γυλάκεια), from Gylax, the name of its oecist. (Thuc. 1.26; Scymnus, 439, 440; Paus. 5.21.12, 22.3; Strab. l.c.; Steph. B. sub voce Apollonia soon became a flourishing place, but its name rarely occurs in Grecian.history. It is mentioned in the civil wars between Caesar and Pompey, as a fortified town with a citadel; and the possession of it was of great importance to Caesar in his campaign against Pompey in Greece. (Caes. B.C. 3.12, seq.) Towards the end of the Roman republic it was celebrated as a seat of learning; and many of the Roman nobles were accustomed to send their sons thither for the purpose of studying the literature and philosophy of Greece. It was here that Augustus spent six months before the death of his uncle summoned him to Rome. (Suet. Aug. 10; Vell. 2.59.) Cicero calls it at this period “urbs magna et gravis.” Apollonia is mentioned by Hierocles (p. 653, ed. Wesseling) in the sixth century; but its name does not occur in the writers of the middle ages. The village of Aulon, a little to the S. of Apollonia, appears to have increased in importance in the middle ages, as Apollonia declined. According to Strabo (p. 322), the Via Egnatia commenced at Apollonia, and according to others at Dyrrhachium; the two roads met at Clodiana. There are scarcely any vestiges of the ancient city at the present day. Leake discovered some traces of walls and of two temples; and the monastery, built near its site, contains some fine pieces of sculpture, which were found in ploughing the fields in its neighbourhood. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 368, seq.; Tafel, De Via Fgnatia, p. 14, seq.)



Sizeboli), a town of Thrace, on the Pontus Euxinus, a little S. of Mesambria, was a colony of the Milesians. It had two large harbours, and the greater part of the town was situated on a small island. It possessed a celebrated temple of Apollo, and a colossal statue of this god, 30 cubits in height, which M. Lucullus carried to Rome and placed in the Capitol. (Hdt. 4.90; Strab. vii. p.319, xii. p. 541, Plin. Nat. 34.7. s. 18. § 39; Scymnus, 730; Arrian, Peripl. p. 24, Anon. Peripl. p. 14.) It was subsequently called SOZOPOLIS (Σωζόπολις, Anon. Peripl. p. 14). whence its modern name Sizeboli. [p. 1.161]


Pollina), a town of Mygdonia in Macedonia, S. of the lake Bolbe (Athen. 8.334e.), and N. of the Chalcidian mountains, on the road from Thessalonica to Amphipolis, as we learn from the Acts of the Apostles (17.1) and the Itineraries. (Anton. Itin. pp. 320, 330; Itin. Hierosol. p. 605; Tab. Peuting.) Pliny (4.10. s. 17.38) mentions this Apollonia.


Políghero), the chief town of Chalcidice in Macedonia, situated N. of Olynthus, and a little S. of the Chalcidian mountains. That this Apollonia is a different place from No. 5, appears from Xenophon, who describes the Chalcidian Apollonia as distant 10 or 12 miles from Olynthus. (Xen. Hell. v. 12 § 1, seq.) It was probably this Apollonia Which struck the beautiful Chalcidian coins, bearing on the obverse the head of Apollo, and on the reverse his lyre, with the legend Χαλκιδέων.


A town in the peninsula of Acte, or Mt. Athos in Macedonia, the inhabitants of which were called Macrobii. (Plin. Nat. 4.10. s. 17. § 37.)


A town in Thrace, situated according to Livy's narrative (38.41), between Maroneia and Abdera, but erroneously placed by the Epitomizer of Strabo (vii. p.331) and by Pomponius Mela (2.2) west of the Nestus.

The four towns last mentioned (Nos. 5--8) are frequently confounded, but are correctly distinguished by Leake, who errs, however, in making the passage of Athenaeus (viii. p. 334e.), refer to No. 6, instead of to No. 5. (Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 457, seq.)


A town on the frontiers of Aetolia, near Naupactus. (Liv. 28.8.)

hide References (12 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (12):
    • Diodorus, Historical Library, 16.72
    • Herodotus, Histories, 4.90
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.21.12
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.22.3
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.26
    • Polybius, Histories, 27.16
    • Suetonius, Divus Augustus, 10
    • Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 34.7
    • Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 4.10
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 28, 8
    • Diodorus, Historical Library, 20.56
    • Athenaeus, of Naucratis, Deipnosophistae, 8
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