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ARACHO´SIA ( Ἀραχωσία: Eth. Ἀραχώτοι, Strab. xv. p.723; Arrian, Anab. 6.17; Ἀραχῶται, Dion. Perieg. 5.1096, Plin. Nat. 5.20. s. 23; Arachosii, Plin. Nat. 6.9. s. 21), a province of Eastern Persia, bounded on the N. by the Paryeti M. (Hazáras, a portion of the chain of the Paropamisus, Hindu-Kush), on the E. by the Indus, on the S. by Gedrosia, and on the W. by Drangiana. It comprehends the present provinces of the NE. part of Baluchistan, Cutch, Gandava, Kandahar, Sewestan, and the SW. portion of Kábulistan. Col. Rawlinson (Journ. Geogr. Soc. vol. xii. p. 113) has supposed the name to be derived from Harakhwati (Sansc. Saraswati), which is also preserved in the Arabic Rakhaj (applied generally to Kandahar), and on the Arghandabriver. According to Wilson (Ariana, p. 158), there is a place called Rohaj or Rokhaj, on the route from Bost to Ghizni.

It appears to have been a rich and thickly peopled province, and acquired early importance as being one of the main routes from India to Persia. Its chief mountains were called Paryeti (Hazáras), including probably part of the Soliman Koh and their SW. branch the Khojeh Amran mountains. It was watered by several streams, of which the principal bore the name of Arachotus [ARACHIOTUS]: and contained the subordinate tribes of the Paryeti, Sidri, Rhoplutae, and Eoritae. Its most ancient capital was Arachotus or Arachosia [ARACHOTUS]; and in later times Alexandreia or Alexandreiopolis, a name probably given to it subsequently in honour of Alexander the Great. (Strab. xv. p.723, seq.; Arrian, Arr. Anab. 3.28; Steph. s.v. Ptol.; Rawlinson, Wilson, il. cc.)


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  • Cross-references from this page (3):
    • Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 5.20
    • Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 6.9
    • Arrian, Anabasis, 3.28
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