), a town of Lower Moesia, situated on the river Axius, which flowed into the Danube near its southernmost mouth, which is now stopped up, and the Limes Trajani. (Ptol. 3.10.11
A´XIUS: (Ἄξιος, Ἀξιός
), the principal river of Macedonia, and the eastern boundary of the kingdom before the reign of Philip, rises in Mt. Scardus between Dardania and Dalmatia, a little NW. of Scupi.
It flows in a south-easterly direction through Macedonia, and, after receiving the Erigon and Astycus and passing by Pella, falls into the Thermaic gulf. The Lydias also now flows into the Axius, but in the time of Herodotus (7.127
) the former river joined the Haliacmon. The Axius has frequently changed its course.
In earlier times it flowed into the sea between Chalastra and Thessalonica. (Strab. vii. p.330
In the middle ages it was called Bardarium (Βαρδάριον,
Anna Comn. i. p. 18, Paus.), whence its modern name of Vardhári.
The principal bridge across the Axius was near Pella (Liv. 44.43
); this bridge is probably identical with the MUTATIO GEPHYRA in the Itin. Hierosol.
(p. 605, Wess.). The Axius is a deep and rapid river in winter, and is nearly two miles in breadth before reaching the sea; but it can be crossed by several fords both in the lower and upper parts of its course. (Clark, Travels,
vol. iii. p. 334; Leake, Northern Greece,
vol. iii. pp. 258, 289, 437, 469; Tafel, Thessalonica,
pp. 69, seq. 287, seq.)