), a district of India intra Gangem, about the sources of the rivers HYDASPES
), Sandabal (which is no doubt the Acesines, Chenab;
), and Adris or Rhoadis. (Ptol. 7.1.42
The people called Caspeiraei (Κασπειραῖοι
) are presently afterwards mentioned as E. of those on the Hydaspes, and W. of the Gymnosophistae, who are near the Upper Ganges. They have numerous cities (Ptolemy names 18), one of which is Caspeira (Κάσπειρα
), evidently the capital ( § § 47--50).
The name, the position, and the number of cities, all concur to identify Caspeiria with the rich valley of Kashmir,
which is watered by the upper courses of the Jelum
besides smaller rivers; and Caspeira is probably, therefore, the city of Kashmir
Mannert would read Κασμειρια
being letters easily confused); but the alteration is unnecessary, for a reason stated under CASPATYRUS
Caspeira is one of Ptolemy's points of recorded astronomical observations, having 14 hrs. 5 min. in its longest day, and being distant about 4 1/2 hrs. E. of Alexandria.
The latter number, compared with those assigned to Bucephala and neighbouring places, confirms the position given to Caspeira, viz., Kashmir.