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CIRCE´SIUM (Κιρκήσιον, Zosim. 3.12; Procop. B. P. 2.5; Amm. Marc. 23.6), a town of Mesopotamia, below Nicephorium, at the junction of the Chaboras (Khabúr) with the Euphrates. Ammianus speaks of it as an island surrounded by the confluence of these two rivers. Procopius (B. P. 2.5) calls it the (φρούριον ἔσχατον of the Romans, who do not appear to have held any fortified place beyond, the Khabiúr eastward. Procopius confirms the account of its position, stating that its fortifications formed a triangular figure at the junction of the two rivers. He adds (de Aedif. 1.6) that Diocletian added additional outworks to the place, which Ammianus also states. There is every reason to believe that Circesium represents the place mentioned in the Bible under the name of CARCHEMISH. (2 Chron. 35.20; Jerem. 46.2; Isaiah, 10.9). The name is written with slight differences by ancient authors, as Circusium (Eutrop. 9.2), Circessum (Sext. Ruf. 100.22), &c. It is now called Karkisia. (Bochart, Geog. Sac. 4.21.)


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    • Ammianus Marcellinus, Rerum Gestarum, 23.6
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