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DRANGIA´NA (Δραγγιανή, Strab. xi. p.516, xv. p. 723; Ptol. 6.19.1; Δράγγη, Strab. xi. p.514; Δραγγινή, Diod. 17.81, 18.3; Drangiana, Amm. Marc. 23.6), a district at the eastern end of the modern kingdom of Persia, and comprehending part of the present Sejestan or Seistan. It was bounded on the N. by Aria, on the E. by Arachosia, on the S. by Gedrosia, and on the W. by Carmania. Its inhabitants were called Eth. Δράγγαι, DRANGAE (Δράγγαι, Arrian, Arr. Anab. 3.28; Strab. xv. pp. 721, 723, 724; Plin. Nat. 6.23. s. 25), or ZARANGAE (Plin. l.c.; Ζαραγγοι, Arrian, 6.17; Ζαραγγαῖοι, Arrian, 3.25; also called Σαράγγαι, Hdt. 3.93, 117, 7.67; Δαράνδαι, Ptol. 6.9.3). The name is derived by M. Burnouf (Comment. sur le Jaçna, p. xcviii.) from Zarayo, a Zend word meaning sea, and might therefore signify those who dwelt on or near the sea or lake now Zarah, which undoubtedly retains its Zend name. (Comp. Wilson, Ariana, p. 152, 153.) Herodotus describes the Sarangae in the army of Xerxes as conspicuous for the dress they wore, dyed garments, boots which reached half up their legs, and bows and Median darts.

Drangiana was conquered by Alexander (Arrian 3.28; Diod. 17.78), and united with the adjacent provinces under one satrap. At first Menon is mentioned as satrap of Arachosia (and therefore probably of Drangiana, as the two provinces were conquered in succession, Arrian, 3.28); then, on the distribution of Alexander's empire among his generals, it fell to the lot of Stasanor of Solus, together with Aria. (Diod. 18.3; Justin, 13.4.) Lastly, it was given by Antipater to Stasander of Cyprus, with Aria, Stasanor having been removed [p. 1.788]to the satrapy of Bactria and Sogdiana. (Diod. 18.39.) The district was mountainous towards the eastern or Arachosian side, but to the W. great sandy plain, analogous to the adjoining country of Carmania or Kirman. Its chief, indeed only, rivers were the Erymandrus or Etymandrus, Eryrnanthus (now Elmend), and Pharnocotis (now Ferrah-Rud). It has one lake of some size on the northern border, adjoining Aria, and named, from it, Aria Lacus (Zarah). [ARIA LACUS] Besides the Drangae, some other tribes appear to have dwelt in Drangiana: as, the Ariaspae, who occupied a town called Ariaspe, on the southern end of the land towards Gedrosia; the Euergetae (probably a section of the last-named tribe), who possessed a, territory called Tatacene and Batrii. The population appears to have mainly belonged to the same race as their neighbours, the people of Ariana, Arachosia, and Gedrosia. The capital of Drangiana was Prophthasia (perhaps modern Furrah; Wilson, Ariana, p. 154). The actual capital of Seistan is Dushak, probably the Zarang of the early Mohammedan writers, which was evidently by its name connected with Drangiana. In the Persian cuneiform inscription at Behistun the country is called Zasaka. (Rawlinson, Mem. p. 1.)


hide References (10 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (10):
    • Diodorus, Historical Library, 17.78
    • Diodorus, Historical Library, 17.81
    • Herodotus, Histories, 3.117
    • Herodotus, Histories, 3.93
    • Herodotus, Histories, 7.67
    • Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 6.23
    • Ammianus Marcellinus, Rerum Gestarum, 23.6
    • Arrian, Anabasis, 3.28
    • Diodorus, Historical Library, 18.3
    • Diodorus, Historical Library, 18.39
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