in Kent, mentioned in the second Itinerary as being the second station from London in the direction of Richborough
(Rutupae), and by general consent fixed at Rochester.
The prefix dur,
being one which will reappear, may conveniently be noticed here.
It is the Keltic dwr == water;
so that the local names wherein it occurs are the Keltic analogues to the English terms Water
&c. Camden has pointed out the following corruptions of the form Durobrivae, viz.: Durobrovae, Durobrevis,
and Civitas Roibi,
from which comes the Saxon Hrofe
-ceaster == Rochester.
In the foundation charter of the cathedral, Rochester is expressly called Durobrovae.
The Rochester river (dwr
) is the Medway.
In the third and fourth Itineraries we also find *Durobrivae (in all cases, twenty-seven Roman miles from London).
This, alone with the satisfactory character of the evidence in favour of Rochester, makes the present notice a convenient place for the investigation of Duro-levum
is the next stage to Rochester in the second Itinerary, and here Durovernum
is twenty-eight miles from Durobrivae.
But in the next two Itineraries the distance is only twenty-five. This (as Horsely remarks) makes it necessary to consider Durolevum as lying somewhat out of the direct road.
Now at Len
-ham (on the river Len
) we have Roman remains, and so we have at Charing (also on the Len
). One of these was probably the Roman Duro-levum,
or (considering the name of the river, along with the likelihood of that of the station being the same, the chances of confusion between v
and, lastly, the fact of the names Deva
(q. v.) being actually confused) Duro-lenum;
a read., ing already suggested by previous investigators.
The present writer, then, fixes Durolevum
) on the Len,
assuming the likelihood of an improved reading, and laying great stress on the name.
At the same time, he adds that Newington, Sittingbourne, Milton, and Faversham (all on a different line of road) have found supporters.
Durovernum is generally identified with Canterbury.
It is mentioned in the same Itineraries with the other two stations.
The river (dwr
) here is the Stour. Ptolemy's form is Darvenum (Ἀρούενον
At Rochester remains of the ancient Durobrivae are sufficiently abundant; e.g. coins of Vespasian, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, M. Aurelius Antoninus, Constantius, and Constantine, fibulae, and pottery.
At Canterbury the evidence is of the same kind; coins being numerous, and there being also traces of the two great Roman roads which led to Dover
(Dubris) and Lymne