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EPIPHANEIA (Ἐπιφάνεια: Eth. Ἐπιφανεύς), a city of Syria, placed by Ptolemy in 69° 36′, 30° 26′, in the district of Cassiotis, in which also Antioch and Larissa were situated. The Itinerary of Antoninus places it 16 miles from Larissa, 32 from Emesa (Arethusa lying half way between it and the latter), and so 101 from Antioch of Syria. It was situated on the western bank of the Orontes, lower down the stream than Emesa (i. e. to the north), and is supposed to be identical with the ancient Hamath (2 Sam. 8.9; 1 Kings, 8.65; Is. x. 9), called also “Hamath the Great” (Amos, 6.2). St. Jerome states that both Antioch and Epiphaneia were formerly named Hamath. and mentions that the first station on the road to Mesopotamia (qy. from Antioch) was in his day named Emmas, probably the modern Hems== Emesa. Eusebius (Onomast. s. v. Ἑμάθ) does not think it to be Epiphaneia near Emesa; but St. Jerome, in the same place, maintains their identity, and says that Epiphaneia was still called Hamath by the native Syrians. (Comp. Onomast. s. v. Aemath.) Aquila also rendered Ἐμὰθ, γὴν Ἐπιφάνειαν γῆς Συρίας. (Theodoret. Quaest. 22 in 2 King.); and Theodoret, in common with St. Jerome, mentions both Epiphaneia and Emesa as Hamath, and says that the former was still so called. (Comment. in Jerem. xlvi. and iv.) Reland, however (Palaest. pp. 119,120, 317), doubts the identity, and is disposed to place the Hamath of Scripture further south, and nearer to the confines of the land of Israel, as indeed Numb. 13.21 and other passages above referred to seem to require. This, however, would not disprove the assertion that Epiphaneia was formerly called Hamath, the proof of which rests on independent ground, and is greatly confirmed by the fact of its retaining that name among the natives in St. Jerome's time, as indeed it does to this day. being still called Hamah, which is described by Irby and Mangles as “delightfully situated in a hollow, between and on the sides of two hills, near the west bank of the Orontes, but in itself presents nothing worthy of notice at this day.” (Travels, p. 244.)



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