, Ptol. 2.1.12
; or Παιονία
, Zosim. 2.43), Eth. Παννονικός
, one of the most important provinces of the Roman empire, on the south and west of the Danube, which forms its boundary in the north and east; in the south it bordered on Illyricum and Moesia, while in the west it was separated from Noricum by Mount Cetius, and from Italy by the Julian Alps.
The country extended along the Danube from Vindobona (Vienna
) to Singidunum, and accordingly comprised the eastern portions of Austria, Carinthia, Carniola,
the part of Hungary
between the Danube
and Save, Slavonia,
and portions of Croatia
After its subjugation by the Romans, it was divided into Pannonia Superior (ἡ ἄνω Παννονία
) and Pannonia Inferior (ἡ κάτω Παννονία
), by a straight line running from Arabona in the north to Servitium in the south, so that the part west of this line constituted Upper Pannonia, and that on the east Lower Pannonia. (Ptol. 2.15.16
In consequence of this division the whole country is sometimes called by the plural name Pannoniae (Παννονίαι, Ptol. 2.16.1
; Zosim. 2.43; Plin. Nat. 37.11. s. 2
In the fourth century, the emperor Galerius separated the district of Lower Pannonia between the Raab,
Danube, and Drave,
and constituted it as a separate province under the name of Valeria, in honour of his wife who bore the same name. (Aur. Vict. de Caes.
40; Amm. Marc. 16.10
But as Lower Pannionia seemed by this measure to be too much reduced, Constantine the Great added to it a part of Upper Pannonia, viz., the districts about the Upper Drave
and Upper Pannonia was henceforth called Pannonia Prima, and Lower Pannonia, Pannonia Secunda. (Amm. Marc. 15.3
.) All these three provinces belonged to the diocese of Illyricum.
It should be observed, however, that Pannonia Secunda is sometimes also called Inter. amnia, Savia, or Ripensis. (Sext. Ruf. Brev.
11 Notit. Imp.
) The three provinces into which Pannonia was thus divided were governed by three different officers, a praeses residing at Sabaria, a consular residing at Sirmium, and a praefect who had his seat at Siscia.
The part bordering upon Germany, which stood most in need of protection, had always the strongest garrisons, though all Pannonia in general was protected by numerous armies, which were gradually increased to seven legions. Besides these troops the fleet stationed at Vindobona was the strongest of the three fleets maintained on the Danube.
Dio Cassius (49.36) mentions an unfortunate etymology of the name of Pannonia from “pannus,” “a rag or piece of cloth,” referring to a peculiar article of dress of the inhabitants, though he also states at the same time that the natives called themselves Pannonians, whence it follows that the name can have nothing to do with the Latin pannus.
As to the identity of the name with that of Paeonians we shall have occasion to speak presently.
In its physical configuration, Pannonia forms a vast plain enclosed only in the west and south by mountains of any considerable height, and traversed only by hills of a moderate size, which form the terminations of the Alpine chains in the west and south, and are for this reason called by Tacitus (Tac. Hist. 2.28
) and Tibullus (4.1. 109) the Pannonian Alps.
The separate parts of these ramifications of the Alps are mentioned under the names of Mount CARVANCAS, CETIUS, ALBII MONTES, CLAUDIUS, and ALMA
or ALMUS. The mountains on the western and southern frontiers contain the sources of some important rivers, such as the DRAVUS
which flow almost parallel and empty themselves into the Danube. Only one northern tributary of the, Dravus is mentioned, viz., the MURIUS; while the Savus receives from the south the NAUPORTUS, CARCORUS, COLAPIS, OENEUS, URPANUS, VALDASUS, and DRINUS. The only other important river in the north-west is the ARRABO
The northern part of Pannonia contained a great lake called the PELSO
), besides which we may notice some smaller lakes, the ULCAEI LACUS
between the Save
and the Drave,
near their mouth.
The climate and fertility of Pannonia are described by the ancients in a manner which little corresponds with what is now known of those countries.
It is said to have been a rough, cold, rugged, and not very productive country (Strab. vii. p.317
; D. C. 49.37
; Herodian, 1.6), though later writers acknowledge the fertility of the plains. (Solin. 21
; comp. with Vell. 2.110
.) Both statements, however, may be reconciled, if we recollect how much the emperors Probus and Galerius did to promote the productiveness cf the country by rooting out the large forests and rendering the districts occupied by them fit for agriculture. (Plin. Nat. 3.28
; Appian, App. Ill. 22
; Hygin. de Limit. Const.
p. 206, Aurel. de Caes.
As the forests in those times were probably much more extensive than at present, timber was one of the principal articles of export from Pannonia, and great quantities of it were imported into Italy. (Solin. 22
.) Agriculture was not carried on to any great extent, and was for the most part confined to the rearing of barley and oats, from which the Pannonians brewed a kind of beer, called Sabaia (D. C. 49.36
; Amm. Marc. 26.8
), and which formed the chief articles of food for the natives. Olives and vines do not appear, at least in early times, to have grown at all in Pannonia, until the emperor Probus introduced the cultivation of the vine in the neighbourhood of Sirmium. (Vopisc. Prob.
1, 18 ; Eutrop. 9.17
; Aurel. Vict. de Caes.
37.) Among the valuable productions of the vegetable kingdom, the fragrant saliunca is mentioned (Plin. Nat. 21.20
), and among the animals dogs excellent for the chase are spoken of by Nemesianus (Cyneg.
126), the cattae by Martial (13.69
), and the charax or black-cock by Athenaeus (ix. p. 398).
The rivers must have provided the inhabitants with abundance of fish.
The ancients do not speak of any metals found in Pannonia, either because the mines were not worked, or because the metals imported from Pannonia were vaguely said to come from Noricum, where mining was carried on to a great extent.
The inhabitants of Pannonia (Pannonii, Παννόνιοι, Πάννονες,
) were a very numerous race, which, in the war against the Romans, could send 100,000 armed men into the field. (Appian, App. Ill. 22
.) Appian (l.c.
14) states that the Romans regarded them as belonging to Illyricum. Some have inferred from this that the great body of the people were Illyrians; and some tribes, such as the Pyrustae, Mazani, and Daesitiatae, are actually described by some as Illyrian and by others as Pannonian [p. 2.542]
The fact that most Greek writers called them Paeonians, and that Tacitus (Germ.
43) speaks of the Pannonian language as different from that of the German tribes, seems to favour the supposition that they were a branch of the Thracian Paeonians, who had gradually spread to the banks of the Danube and the confines of Italy.
It must however be observed that Dio Cassius (49.36), who knew the. people well, denies that they Paeonians.
There can, however, be no doubt that Celtic tribes also existed in the country, and in the early part of the Roman empire Roman civilisation and the Latin language had made considerable progress. They are described as a brave and warlike people, which, at the time when the Romans became acquainted with them, lived in a very low state of civilisation, and were notorious for cruelty and love of bloodshed (Dio Cass. 1. c.;
Appian, App. Ill. 14
; Strab. vii. p.318
; Stat. Silv. 3.13
), as well as for faithlessness and cunning (Tib. 4.1. 8
But since their subjugation by the Romans, the civilisation of the conquerors produced considerable changes (Vell. 2.110
); and even the religion of the Pannonians (some of their gods, such as Latobius, Laburus, Chartus, are mentioned in inscriptions) gave way to that of the Romans, and Pannonian divinities were identified with Roman ones (Spart. Sever.
15; Lamprid. Alex.
7). The Romanisation of the country was promoted and completed by the establishment of colonies and garrisons, so that at the time of the migration of nations, the country was completely Romanised.
The following are the principal tribes noticed by the ancients in Pannonia ; some of them, it must be observed, are decidedly Celtic. In Upper Pannonia we meet with the AZALI, CYTNI, BOII, COLETIANI, OSERIATES, SERRETES, SERRAPILLI, SANDRIZETES, LATOBICI, and VARCIANI
and perhaps also the IAPODES
or IAPYDES, the COLAPIANI and SCORDISCI
though some of these latter may have extended into Illyricum. In Lower Pannonia, we have the ARABISCI, HERCIJNIATAE, ANDIANTES, IASII, BREICI, AMANTINI (AMANTES), and CORNUCATES. Besides these, Pliny (3.26
) mentions the ARIVATES, BELGITES, and CATARI, of whom it is not known what districts they inhabited. Towns and villages existed in the country in great numbers even before its conquest by the Romans (Dio Cass 4.29; Jornand. Get.
50) ; and Appian's statement (Illyr.
22), that the Pannonians lived only in villages and isolated farms, probably applies only to some remote and more rugged parts of the country.
The most important towns were VINDOBONA, CARNUINTUM, SCARBANTIA, SABARIA, ARRABO, PAETOVIS, SISCIA, AEMONA, NAUPORTUS; and in Lower Pannonia, BREGETIO, AQUINCUM, MURSIA, CIBALAE, ACIMINCUM, TAURUNUM, and SIRMIUM
The history of Pannonia previous to its conquest by tile Romans, is little known. We learn from Justin (24.4
) that some Celtic tribes, probably remnants of the hosts of Brennus, settled in the country. Most of the tribes seem to have been governed by their own chiefs or kings. (Veil. Pat. 2.114; Sext. Ruf. Brev.
7; Jornand. de Reg. Suc.
The obscurity which hangs over its history begins to be somewhat removed in the time of the triumvirate at Rome, B.C. 35, when Octavianus, for no other purpose but that of giving lis troops occupation and maintaining them at the expense of others, attacked the Pannonians, and by conquering the town of Siscia broke the strength of the nation. (D. C. 49.36
; Appian, App. Ill. 13
, foil.) His general Vibius afterwards completed the conquest of the country.
But not many years after this, when a war between Maroboduus, king of the Marcomanni, and the Romans was on the point of breaking out, the Pannonians, together with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, rose in a great insurrection against their oppressors, and it were was not till after a bloody war of several years' duration that Tiberius succeeded in reducing them, and changing the country into a Roman province, A.D. 8. (D. C. 4.24
; Suet. Tib. 15
; Veil. Pat. 2.110, foil.) Henceforth a considerable army was kept in Pannonia to secure the submission of the people. When the soldiers received the news of the death of Augustus, they broke out in open rebellion, but were reduced by Drusus. (Tac. Ann. 1.15
, foil. 30; D. C. 57.4
.) During the first century Pannonia formed only one province, under the administration of a lieutenant of the emperor. Respecting its division in the second century, we have already spoken. Until the time of the migration of nations, Pannonia remained a part of the Roman empire; many colonies and municipia were established in the country, and fortresses were built for its protection; military roads also were constructed, especially one along the Danube, and a second through the central part of the country from Vindobona to Sirmium. The Romans did indeed much to civilise the Pannonians, but they at the same time derived great benefits from them; the military valour of the natives was of great service to them, and formed always a considerable portion of the Roman legions. About the middle of the fifth century Pannonia was lost to the Romans in consequence of the conquests made by the Huns, to whom the emperor Theodosius II. was obliged formally to cede Pannonia. (Prisc. Exc. de Leg.
p. 37, ed. Paris.) On the dissolution of the empire of the Huns by the death of Attila, the country fell into the hands of the Ostrogoths (Jornand. Get.
50), from whom it passed, about A.D. 500, into those of the Longobardi, who in their turn had to give it up to the Avari in A.D. 568.
The ancient authorities for the geography of Pannonia are Ptolemy (2.15
and 16), Pliny (2.28
), Strabo (iv. p.206
, foil., v. p. 213, foil., vii. p. 313, foil.), Dio Cassius (49.34--38, 4.23, 24). Velleius Paterculus (2.110, foil.), Tacitus (Tac. Ann. 1.16
, foil.), Appian, Jornandes (ll. cc.
). Among modern writers the following deserve to be consulted: Schönleben, Carniola antique et nova,
and Annales Corniolae antiquae et novae,
Labacus, 1681, fol.; Katanesich, Comment. in C. Plinii Secundi Pannoniam,
Buda, 1829; Niebuhr, Lect. on Ancient Hist.
vol. i. p. 164, foll.