), a village and station on the Flaminian Way, 9 miles from Rome It evidently derived its name from the redness of the tufo rocks, which is still conspicuous in the neighbourhood of Prima Porta.
The name is written “Ad Rubras” in the Tabula, while Martial calls the place simply “Rubrae;” and this form is found also in the Jerusalem Itinerary. (Martial, 4.64. 15
; Itin. Hier.
But the proper form of it seems to have been Saxa Rubra, which is used both by Livy and Cicero.
The formermentions it during the wars of the Romans with the Veientes, in connection with the operations on the Cremera (Liv. 2.49
); and Cicero notices it as a place in the immediate vicinity of Rome, where M. Antonius halted before entering the city. (Cic. Phil. 2.31
) It was there also that Antonius, the general of Vespasian, arrived on his march upon Rome, when he learnt the successes of the Vitellians and the death of Sabinus. (Tac. Hist. 3.79
At a much later period also (B.C. 32) it was the point to which Maxentius advanced to meet Constantine previous to the battle at the Milvian bridge. (Vict. Caes.
40.23.) We learn from Martial (l.c.
), that a village had grown up on the spot, as would naturally be the case with a station so immediately in the neighbourhood of the city.
On a hill on the right of the Via Flaminia, a little beyond Prima Porta,
are considerable ruins, which are believed to be those of the villa of Livia, known by the name of “Ad Gallinas,” which was [p. 2.926]
situated 9 miles from Rome, on the Via Flaminia. (Plin. Nat. 15.30. s. 40
; Suet. Galb.