, Ptol. 5.15
; Strab. xi. p.521
, xii. pp. 533, 535, xvi. p. 749; Plin. Nat. 5.12. s. 24
; Tac. Ann. 2.42
), a district of Syria, lying to the N., bounded on the E. by the Euphrates, on the W. by Cilicia, and on the N. by Amanus.
It was celebrated for its rich and fertile country (Strab. xii. p.535
; Tac. Ann. 15.12
), and was attached to the Syrian kingdom in the flourishing period of the Seleucidae.
But in the civil wars of Grypus and his brothers, and in the disorders which followed, Commagene gradually acquired independence, and had its own sovereigns connected with the Seleucid family.
It remained an independent kingdom for upwards of a century.
It is, only necessary to give here a list of the kings of Commagene; since a full account of them will be found in the Dictionary of Biography
under each name: ANTIOCHUS I.; MITHRIDATES I.; ANTIOCHUS II.; MITHRIDATES II.; ANTIOCHUS III. After the death of Antiochus III. in A.D. 17, Commagene became for a short time a Roman province, but was afterwards given in A.D. 38 to the son of the late king ANTIOCHUS IV. In A.D. 73, it was again reduced to the condition of a province, and its capital SAMOSATA
received the additional name of FLAVIA, and a new aera which commences with the year A.D. 71. (Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 252; Clinton, F.R.
vol. i. p. 60; Suet. Vesp.
8; Eutrop. 8.19
; Oros. 7.9
.) [p. 1.652]
In later time this district, united with that of Cyrrhestica, received the name of Euphratensis (Amm. Marc. 14.8.7
; Procop. Aed.
2.8, B. P.
1.17, 2.20), or Augusto-phratensis (Aurel. Vict. Epit.
9.13), and was placed under a “praeses.” Constantine made HIERAPOLIS
the capital instead of Samosata (Malal. Chron.
xiii. p. 317). In A.D. 543 the Persians under Chosroes made an inroad upon Euphratensis, intending to advance by that route upon Jerusalem, but were compelled to retreat by Belisarius. (Le Beau, Bas Empire,
vol. ix. p. 68; Norisius, de Epoch. Syro-Mac.
Diss. 2.100.4; Clinton, F. H.
vol. iii. p. 343; St. Martin, Mém. sur l'Armenie,
vol. i. p. 193; Ritter, Erdkzunde,
vol. x. p. 929.)