, Ptol. 3.8.9
, D. C. 58.9
), one of the most considerable towns of Dacia, and the residence of the Dacian kings (βασίλειον,
) It is called Sarmategte in the Tabula Peut.,
and Sarmazege by the Geogr. Rav. (4.7).
It is incontestablythe sameplace as that called τὰ βασίλεια Δακῶν
by Dio Cassius (67.10; 68.8), who places it on the river Sargetia (lb.
100.14); a situation which is also testified by ruins and inscriptions.
At a later period a Roman colony was founded here by Trajan, after he had expelled and killed Decebalus king of the Dacians; as is testified by its name of Colonia Ulpia Trajana Augusta, and may be inferred from Ulpian (Dig.
50. tit. 15. 1. 1.), from whom we also learn that it possessed the Jus Italicum.
It was the head-quarters of the Legio XIII. Gemina (D. C. 55.23
), and at first probably there was only a Roman encampment here (Id. 58.9; Aur. Vict. Caes.
13.4). Hadrian conferred an aqueduct upon it, as appears from an inscription (Gruter, p. 177. 3; Orelli, No. 812), and that emperor seems to have retained the colony, on account of its numerous Roman inhabitants, when he resolved to abandon the rest of Dacia to the barbarians. From an inscription to Trajan and his sister Marciana, there would appear to have been baths here (Orell. 791). Sarmizegethusa occupied the site of the present Varhély
(called also Gradischte
), on the river Strel or Strey,
about 5 Roman miles from the Porta Ferrea, or Vulcan Pass. (Comp. Inscr.
Gruter, p. 272; Orelli,Nos. 831, 3234, 3433, 3441, 3527, 3686, 4552; Zamosc. Ann.
pp. 40, 74; Marsili, Danub.
tab. 24, 55, &c.; Ukert, 3.2. p. 616, seq.; Zumpt, in Rhein. Mus.
1843, p. 253--259.)