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VIA AURELIA one of the principal highways of Italy, which led from Rome to Pisae in Etruria, and thence along the coast of Liguria to the Maritime Alps. It was throughout almost its whole extent a maritime road, proceeding, in the first instance, from Rome to Alsium en the Tyrrhenian sea, whence it followed the coast-line of Etruria, with only a few trifling deviations, the whole way to Pisae. The period of its construction is quite uncertain. Its name suifficenitly indicates that it was the work of some magistrate of the name of Aurelius; but which of the many illustrious men who bore this name in the latter ages of the Republic was the author of it, we are entirely uninformed, We know with certainty that it was in use as a well-known and frequented highway in the time of Cicero, who mentions it as one of the three roads by which he might proceed to Cisalpine Gaul ( “ab infero maria Aurelia,” Phil. 12.9). It may also be probably inferred that it was in existence as far as Pisae, when the road was carried from that city to Vada Sabata and Dertona, the construction of which is ascribed by Strabo to Aemilius Scaurus, in B.C. 109 (Strab. v. p.217). [VIA AEMILIA SCAURI] This continuation of the Aurelian Way seems to have been commonly included under the same general name as the original road; though, according to Strabo, it was properly called the Aemilian Way, like its more celebrated namesake in Cisalpine Gaul. It was apparently not till the reign of Augustus that the line of road was carried along the foot of the Maritime Alps, from Vada Sabata to Cemenelium, and thence into Gaul. It is certain, at least, that the ancient road, of which the traces are still visible, was the work of that emperor; and we know also that the Ligurian tribes who inhabited the Maritime Alps were not completely reduced to subjection till that period. [LIGURIA] The Itineraries, however, give the name of Via Aurelia to the whole line of road from Rome to Arelate in Gaul; and though little value can be attached to their authority on this point, it is not improbable that the name was frequently used in this more extended sense; just as that of the Via Appia was applied to the whole line from Rome to Brundusium, though originally carried only as far as Capua. [p. 2.1296]

The stations form Rome, as far as Luna in Etruria, are thus given in the Antonine Itinerary (p. 290 &c.):

Lorium (near Castel Guido xii. M. P.
Ad Turres (Monteroni)) x.  
Pyrgi Sta Severa xii.  
Castrum Novum (T. di Chiaruccia viii.  
Centum Cellae (Civita Vecchia v.  
Martha (Ad Martam fl.) x.  
Forum Aurelii (Montalto? xxiv.  
Cosa (Ansedonia xxv.  
Ad lacum Aprilem (Prilem) xxii.  
Salebro (?) xii.  
Manliana (?) ix.  
Populonium (Ru. of Populonia xii.  
Vada Volaterrana (Vada xx.(?)
Ad Herculem (near Livorno xviii.  
Pisae (Pisa xii.  
Papiriana (Viareggio? xi.  
Luna (Luni xxiv.  

The stations thence along the coast of Liguria as far as the river Varus have been mentioned in the article LIGURIA; and the distances along this part of the line, in both the Antonine Itinerary and the Tabula, are so confused and corrupt that it is useless to attempt their correction. Even of that part of the Via Aurelia above given, along the coast of Etruria, several of the stations are very uncertain, and some of the distances are probably corrupt. From Rome to Centum Cellae, indeed, the road has been carefully examined and the distances verified (Westphal, Röm. Kamp. pp. 162--169); but this has not been done farther on: and as the road traversed the Maremma, which was certainly in the latter ages of the Roman Empire, as at the present day, a thinlypeopled and unhealthy district, several of the stations were probably even then obscure and unimportant places. The Tabula, as usual, gives a greater number of such stations, several of which may be identified as the points where the road crossed rivers and streams whose names are known. But the route is given very confusedly, and the distances are often incorrect, while in some cases they are omitted altogether.

From Rome to M. P.
Lorium (Castel Guido xii.
Baebiana(?) --
Alsium (Palo vi.
Pyrgi (Sta Severa x.
Punicum (Sta Marinella --
Castrum Novum (Torredi Chiaruccia ix.
Centum Cellae (Civita Vecchia iv.
(Ad) Minionem fl. (River Mignone --
Graviscae --
Tabellaria (?) v.
Ad Martm fl. ii.
Forum Aurelii (Montalto? iii.
(Ad) Arminiam fl. (River Fiora iv.
Ad Novas, or Ad Nonas iii.
Sub Cosam ii.
Cosa (Ansedonia ii.
(Ad) Albiniam fl. (R. Albegna ix.
Telamonem (Porto Talamone iv.
Hastam viii.
(Ad) Umbronem fl. (R. Ombrone viiii. (?)
Salebro (?) xii.
Manliana (?) ix.
Populonium (Ru. of Populonia xii.
Vada Volaterrana (Vada xx.(?)
Ad Fines viii.(?)
(Ad) Piscinas xiii.(?)
Turrita (Triturrita xvi.(?)
Pisae (Pisa ix.(?)

The distances between Populonium and Pisae, as well as those between Centum Cellae and Cosa, are in many cases unintelligible; and it is often impossible to say to which of the stages they are meant to refer.

The Via Aurelia (in the more extended sense of the term, as used in the Itineraries) colnmunicated with Cisalpine Gaul and the Via Aemilia by two different routes; the one, which according to Strabo was constructed by Aemilius Scanrus at the same time that he continued the Via Aurelia to Vada Sabata, led from that place across the Apennines to Aquae Statiellae, and thence to Dertona to which place the Via Aemilia had probably already been prolonged. (Strab. v. p.217.) The other, which was known as the Via Postumia, and was therefore probably constructed at a different period, led from Dertona across the mountains direct to Genua. Both these lines are given in the Antonine Itinerary and in the Tabula; though in the former they are confused and mixed up with the direct line of the coast road. [LIGURIA]


From Genua to Dertona the stations were:--

Libarnum (Ru. between Arquata and Serravalle xxxvi. M. P.
Dertona (Tortona xxxv.  

The continuation of this route thence to Placentia will be found under VIA AEMILIA


From Dertona to Vada Sabata:--

D. to Aquae Statiellae (Acqui xxvii. M. P.
  Crixia (?) xx.(xxii. Tab.
  Canalicum (?) x. (xx. Tab.
  Vada Sabata (Vado xii.  

(For the correction of these distances and more detailed examination of the routes in question, see Walckenaer, Céographie des Gaules, vol. iii. p. 22.) [E.H.B]

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