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We have seen in Idylls vi and viii that Theocritus imagined to himself a legendary past of the country side and country character. The heroes Daphnis, Menalcas, and Damoetas sang in rivalry, as did the shepherds of Cos and Sicily in the year 280, and their times were not far different from the modern in tone. Here the heroic mask is stripped away completely. The giant Polyphemus is no more the cannibal brute of the Odyssey, but an uncouth boor; huge and ugly still, above the mortals in loving a nymph, but at the last only a Brockenshadow of Comatas.

The theme of the 'Cyclops and Galatea' was a favourite, and was treated in verse by Philoxenus (Bergk, fr. 8), Hermesianax, Theocritus, Callimachus, and Bion, besides whom the author of the Epit. Bionis alludes to the story (see Rohde, Der Griech. Roman, p. 74). We do not know how Philoxenus and Hermesianax dealt with the story. In Theocritus it forms, like Idyll xiii, the illustration of a text, 'There is no remedy in science against the plague of love'; even heroes like Heracles were subject to it; nay, even that old hero of Sicily, the Cyclops Polyphemus, was as love-sick as any one of us, and found solace in song alone. The object of the poem is therefore not to present to us a burlesque pastoral, but to combine with certain grotesque features a pathos and feeling of pity.

Like Id. xiii the poem is addressed to Nicias, whose profession is gently satirized. The doctor answered the poem with one of which the opening lines are preserved: “ ἦν ἄρ᾽ ἀληθὲς τοῦτο Θεόκριτε: οἱ γὰρ ἔρωτες
πολλοὺς ποιητὰς ἐδίδαξαν τοὺς πρὶν ἀμούσους.

Bion would seem to have softened down the rougher features of the sketch and to have made his Cyclops sing more daintily, if we may judge from the four lines left of his poem: “ αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ βασεῦμαι ἐμὰν ὁδὸν ἐς τὸ κάταντες
τῆνο ποτὶ ψάμαθόν τε καὶ ἀϊόνα ψιθυρίσδων,
λισσόμενος Γαλάτειαν ἀπηνέα: τὰς δὲ γλυκείας
ἐλπίδας ὑστατίω μέχρι γήραος οὐκ ἀπολείψω.

Callimachus' work is an epigram less on Polyphemus' than on Theocritus' poem (Epig. xlvi): “ ὡς ἀγαθὰν Πολύφαμος ἀνεύρετο τὰν ἐπαοιδὰν
     τὠραμένῳ: καὶ Γᾶν οὐκ ἀμαθὴς Κύκλωψ:
αἱ Μοῦσαι τὸν ἔρωτα κατισχναίνοντι, Φίλιππε.
     πανακὲς πάντων φάρμακον σοφία.
τοῦτο δοκέω, χἁ λιμὸς ἔχει μόνον ἐς τὰ πονηρὰ
     τὠγαθὸν ἐκκόπτει τὰν φιλόπαιδα νόσον, ετξ.

Besides these poets Ovid (Metam. xiii. 789) has imitated the poem (vid. notes on this idyll); but according to his wont has expanded all the phraseology to very weariness.

On date, etc., see Introd. p. 23.

1, 2 πεφύκει see on x. 1.

The words φάρμακονἔγχριστονἐπίπαστον are chosen in view of Nicias' profession (cf. 5 and 80).

ἐπίπαστον is explained by Iliad xi. 515 ἐπί τ᾽ ἤπια φάρμακα πάσσειν.

For ἔγχριστον cf. Aesch. P. V. 480; Eurip. Hippol. 516. The metaphor of φάρμακον is common; Bion, xiv: “ μολπὰν ταὶ Μοῖσαί μοι ἀεὶ ποθέοντι διδοῖεν
τὰν γλυκερὰν μολπὰν τᾶς φάρμακον ἅδιον οὐδέν.

” Isocr. 167 c ταῖς ψυχαῖς ταῖς ἀγνοούσαις καὶ γεμούσαις πονηρῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν οὐδὲν ἐστὶν ἄλλο φάρμακον πλὴν λόγος.

[3] κοῦφον…, 'but light it is and sweet among men.' κοῦφον is not = κουφίζον: but = gentle and painless. Cf. Pind. P. iii. 6 τέκτων νωδυνίαν ἅμερος (cf. Aesculapius); Horace, Odes i. 32. 15 'dulce lenimen'; Pind. P. iii. 91: “      τοὺς μὲν μαλακαῖς ἐπαοιδαῖς
ἀμφέπων, τοὺς δὲ προσανέα πίνοντας, ετξ.

[4] ἐπί here = among, not 'in power of.' Cf. Odyss. xiii. 59: “ γῆρας
ἔλθῃ καὶ θάνατος, τά τ᾽ ἐπ᾽ ἀνθρώποισι πέλονται:

” Bacchyl. vii. 8: “ δὲ σὺ πρεσβύτατον νείμῃς γέρας
νίκας, ἐπ᾽ ἀνθρώποισιν ἔνδοξος κέκληται.

[6] ταῖς ἐννέα δή cf. Epig. x; on Nicias as a poet, vid. Introd. p. 13.

[7] οὕτω γοῦν, ''Twas thus at least that Polyphemus eased his pain.'

ῥάιστα cf. v. 81; Timo, fr. 41 (Brunck) πῶς ποτ᾽ ἀνὴρ ἔτ᾽ ἄγεις ῥῇστα μεθ᾽ ἡσυχίης.

παρ᾽ ἁμῖν. These words cannot be taken as evidence that the poem was written in Sicily. In Xenoph. Hellen. iii. 4. 5 Agesilaus when in Asia says, ἐν τῇ παρ᾽ ἡμῖν ῾Ελλάδι, i. e. in the Greece from which we come. But the words obviously do imply that Theocritus was a native of Sicily.

[8] ὡρχαῖος cf. Callim. Ep. 59 ὡρχαῖος ᾿Ορέστας.

[10] ἤρατο δέ, etc. He loved not with apples nor roses, nor locks of hair, but with real fits of madness, i. e. not with what men call a wild passion, but with a fiercer madness.

μάλοις cf. vi. 7.

ῥόδῳ collective singular; vid. note on xiv. 17.

[11] ὀρθαῖς μανίαις cf. Aelian, H. An. xi. 32 ἔκφρων γενόμενος εἴς τε ὀρθὴν μανίαν καὶ ὡς τὰ μάλιστα ἰσχυρὰν ἐκφοιτᾷ (Fritzsche); cf. Lucian, Tox. xv. καταβαλὼν ἑαυτὸν εἰς τοὔδαφος ἐκυλίνδετο καὶ λύττα ἦν ἀκριβὴς τὸ πρᾶγμα.

[12] The lines are imitated in a pretty epigram; A. Pal. vii. 173 (? Leonidas): “ αὐτόμαται δείλᾳ ποτὶ τωὐλίον αἱ βόες ἦλθον
ἐξ ὄρεος πολλῇ νειφόμεναι χιόνι:
αἰαῖ, Θηρίμαχος δὲ παρὰ δρυῒ τὸν μακρὸν εὕδει
ὕπνον: ἐκοιμήθη δ᾽ ἐκ πυρὸς οὐρανίου.

” Cf. Verg. Ecl. iv. 21. αὐταί alone.

[14] ἀείδων αὐτοθ᾽ ἐπ᾽ ἀιόνος, 'singing his Galatea there on the weed-strewn shore.' Cf. the picture of Odysseus on the desolate coast of Calypso's island: “ ἤματα δ᾽ ἂμ πέτρῃσι καὶ ἠϊόνεσσι καθίζων
πόντον ἐπ᾽ ἀπρύγετον δερκέσκετο.--οδψσς. ϝ. 156.

αὐτόθ᾽ is for αὐτόθι elided as in Odyss. x. 132, etc. The MSS. have αὐτοῦ, αὐτῶ, or αὐτός, but αὐτῶ in Doric = αὐτόθεν, thence not there. Hence Ahrens, αὐτῶ ἀπό (Dial. Dor. 375), but this gives an awkward order, or αὐτεῖ ἐπί, introducing a new dialect form. αὐτοθ᾽ explains the variant. αὐτοῦ was written as gloss and altered to αὐτός or αὐτῶ.

[16] τό οἱ ἥπατι. The antecedent to τό is ἕλκος. Cf. Syrinx, ὃς Μοίσᾳ λιγὺ πᾶξεν ἰοστεφάνῳ ἕλκος: Iliad xvi. 5DI ἕλκος, δή μιν Τεῦκρος ἐπεσσύμενον βάλεν ἰῷ: Pind. Pyth. ii. 167 ἕλκος ἑᾷ καρδίᾳ ἐνέπαξαν. The phrase is partly Homeric; Odyss. xxii. 83 ἐν δέ οἱ ἥπατι πῆξε θοὸν βέλος.

[19] sqq. The opening of this song has found many imitators.

'Nerine Galatea, thymo mihi dulcior Hyblae,
Candidior cycnis, hedera formosior alba'

(following as usual even the rhythm of Theocritus' lines). Ovid, Met. loc. cit. 'Candidior folio nivei, Galatea, ligustri, etc., the comparison running through nineteen lines. Gay, in Acis and Galatea:      'O ruddier than the cherry,
     O sweeter than the berry,
O nymph more bright than moonshine night
     Than kidlings blithe and merry.'

” On the balance and symmetry of the lines, vid. Introd. p. 39.

[20] πακτᾶς 'Mollior lacte coacto' (Ovid, loc. cit.); Lucian. ᾿Ενάλ. Διάλ. Doris to Galatea, καίτοι τί ἄλλο ἐν σοὶ ἐπαινέσαι εἶχεν (the Cyclops) τὸ λευκὸν μόνον; καὶ τοῦτο οἶμαι ὅτι ξυνήθης ἐστι τυρῷ καὶ γάλακτι. Diodorus says that Tyro was so called διὰ τὴν λευκότητα καὶ τὴν τοῦ σώματος μαλακότητα (Renier).

[21] σφριγανωτέρα, 'more plump than ripening grape'; vid. note on xxvii. 9, and J. A. Hartung on this line.

[22] αὖθ᾽ = αὖθι. αὖθι in Homer = ἐνθάδε (Odyss. v. 208), but in Alexandrine poets is used for αὖθις or αὖ, with the meaning 'again,' 'in turn' (not 'a second time'); Callim. iii. 241: “      ὠρχήσαντο
πρῶτα μὲν ἐν σακέεσσιν ἐνόπλιον, αὖθι δὲ κύκλῳ
στησάμεναι χορὸν εὐρύν.

” (Homer uses αὖτε in this sense, Odyss. xxii. 5; Iliad i. 237); cf. i. 112. The -ι- is elided as in Iliad xii. 85, etc. The couplet then connects with 19, 'Why dost thou reject thy lover ... but come in turn when sleep possesses me, but straight art gone when sleep doth disenchain me.'

[23] ὕπνος ἀνῇ με Odyss. vii. 289 καί με γλυκὺς ὕπνος ἀνῆκεν. Cf. Odyss. ix. 333.

[25] τεοῦς = τευ = σου. Dialect, § 2. It is a Boeotian form, Ahrens, Dial. i. p. 223.

[26] ὑακίνθινα φύλλα cf. xviii. 39.

[27] ἐγὼ δ᾽ ὁδόν Odyss. vii. 30 ἐγὼ δ᾽ ὁδὸν ἡγεμονεύσω.

ἐξ ὄρεος, 'on the hills.' Vergil adapts and makes a pretty picture,

'Saepibus in nostris parvam te roscida mala--
Dux ego vester eram--vidi cum matre legentem.
Alter ab undecimo tum me iam acceperat annus;
Iam fragilis poteram a terra contingere ramos.'

[28] παύσασθαι sc. ἐρῶν. Beware of joining παύσασθαι ἐσιδών. Verbs of ceasing and beginning take the present participle, never the aorist. Tr. 'Having seen thee, from that time onward I cannot even yet cease to love.'

πᾳ = πω. For the conjunction of οὐδέ πω νῦν, cf. Isocr. 94 b ὥστε μηδέ πω νῦν ἐξιτήλους εἶναι τὰς συμφοράς.

[29] τὶν δ᾽ οὐ μέλει cf. iii. 52.

[33] εἷς δ᾽ ὀφθαλμὸς ἔπεστι cf. Hesiod, Theog. 142 μοῦνος δ᾽ ὀφθαλμὸς μέσσῳ ἐνέκειτο μετώπῳ: Lucian, ᾿Ενάλ. Διάλ. 1 (i. 288) ὀφθαλμὸς ἐπιπρέπει τῷ μετώπῳ οὐδὲν ἐνδεέστερον ὁρῶν εἰ δύ᾽ ἦσαν. These passages show that ἐπὶ τῷ μετώπῳ is to be supplied with ἔπεστι, and support that word against ὕπεστι (Warton's conject. adopted by Ziegler). Callim. iii. 52 πᾶσι δ᾽ ὑπ᾽ ὀφρὺν φάεα μουνόγληνα σάκει ἴσα τετραβοείῳ.

[34] οὖτος τοιοῦτος ἐών, 'but this Cyclops, though he be such, keeps a thousand cattle.'

οὖτος (MSS. alii, ωὑτός) is contemptuous. 'This fellow whom you despise.'

τοιοῦτος ἐών, 'such as I have described.' Demosth. xxv. 64 ἀλλ᾽ ὅμως τοιαῦτα πράττων καὶ τοιοῦτος ὢν ἐν ἁπάσαις ἀεὶ βοᾷ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις.

[36] οὔτ᾽ ἐν θέρει, κ.τ.λ. Another Homeric ending, of which Theocritus has several in this idyll. Odyss. xii. 75: “      οὐδέ ποτ᾽ αἴθρη
κείνου ἔχει κορυφὴν οὔτ᾽ ἐν θέρει οὔτ᾽ ἐν ὀπώρῃ.

[37] χειμῶνος ἄκρω in the depth of winter. Cf. Soph. Ajax 285: “      ἄκρας νυκτός, ἡνίχ᾽ ἕσπεροι
λαμπτῆρες οὐκέτ᾽ ᾖθον.

” Jebb's note ad loc., ἄκρα νύξ, ἄκρα ἑσπέρα, etc., usually mean 'at the fringe of night, evening.' Cf. the adjectives ἀκρόνυχος, ἀκρέσπερος (Theocr. xxiv. 77); cf. Aratus 775: “ ἄλλα δ᾽ ἀνερχόμενος, τοτέ δ᾽ ἄκρῃ νυκτὶ κελεύων
ἠέλιοςἐρέει).

ταρσοί Odyss. ix. 219: “ ταρσοὶ μὲν τυρῶν βρῖθον στείνοντο δὲ σηκοὶ
ἀρνῶν ἠδ᾽ ἐρίφων.

Verg. Ecl. ii. 21.

[38] ὡς οὔτις, 'as none else.'

Χ. σὺ φιλόπολις καὶ χρηστός; Σ. ὡς οὐδείς γ᾽ ἀνήρ.

[39] τὶνἀείδων, 'singing thee, my dear sweet-apple, and myself together.'

τίν, cf. 69, is accusative; vid. Dial. § 2.

ἁμᾷ (cf. ix. 4): a Doric form for ἅμα. Ahrens, Dial. Dor. pp. 372 and 34.

γλυκύμαλον Sappho, fr. 93: “ οἶον τὸ γλυκύμαλον ἐρεύθεται ἄκρῳ ἐπ᾽ ὔσδῳ
ἄκρον ἐπ᾽ ἀκροτάτῳ: λελάθοντο δὲ μαλοδρόπηες
οὐ μὰν ἐκλελάθοντ᾽ ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἐδύναντ᾽ ἐπικέσθαι.

[40] νυκτὸς ἀωρί cf. xxiv. 38. For the genit. cf. ii. 119; Xen. Hellen. ii. 1. 23ἡμέρας ὀψὲ ἦν.

τρέφω δέ τοι

'Inveni geminos qui tecum ludere possint
Inter se similes, vix ut dignoscere possis,
Villosae catulos in summis montibus ursae:
Inveni et dixi "dominae servabimus istes."

[41] μηνοφόρως, 'crescent-marked,' i. e. with a white crescent mark on the forehead, as Horace describes a calf

'Fronte curvatos imitatus ignes
Tertium Lunae referentis ortum,
Qua notam duxit, niveus videri,
     Cetera fulvus.'

Iliad xxiii. 455; Moschus, Europa 86: “ τοῦ δ᾽ ἤτοι τὸ μὲν ἄλλο δέμας ξανθότριχον ἔσκεν
κύκλος δ᾽ ἀργύρεος μέσσῳ μάρμαιρε μετώπῳ.

” The MSS. μαννοφόρως would mean 'wearing collars,' but a rare natural beauty is obviously required.

[42] ἀφίκευσο = αφίκευ. The form is stated by the Scholiast to be Syracusan, but is not known beyond this passage, and cannot be considered certain. This idyll contains a rougher form of dialect than the others: τεοῦς, l. 25; τίν, l. 39.

[43] τὰν γλαυκὰν δὲ θάλασσαν ἔα note the expressive vowel alliteration on the broad open -α-, giving the dull roar of the sea. ('The league long roller thundering on the reef.') Vergil translates the line, but less well than usual: “'Huc ades; insani feriant sine litora fluctus,'Ecl. ix. 43.

ὀρεχθεῖν probably of sound = ῥοχθεῖν (Odyss. v. 402 ῥόχθει γὰρ μέγα κῦμα ποτὶ ξερὸν ἠπείροιο), but if so Theocritus has given the word a new sense. In Iliad xxiii. 30 it = to gasp, βόες ὀρέχθεον ἀμφὶ σιδήρῳ: Eustath. ad loc. μίμημά ἐστι τραχέος ἤχου ἐν τῷ σφάζεσθαι βοῦν: Θεόκριτος δὲ ἐπὶ τῆς θάλασσης τίθησι τὴν λέξιν καθ᾽ ὁμοιότητα τοῦ ῥόχθει γὰρ μέγα κῦμα: Arist. Clouds 1368 πῶς οἴεσθέ μου τὴν καρδίαν ὀρεχθεῖν; and Oppian, Hal. ii. 583 ἔνδον ὀρεχθεῖ κραδίη use it in sense of 'gasping'; vid. Liddell and Scott, s. v.

[47] πολυδένδρεος Αἴτνα Pind. P. i. 53 Αἴτνας ἐν μελαμφύλλοις κορυφαῖς: ib. 38 νιφόεσσ᾽ Αἴτνα πανετες χιόνος ὀξείας τιθήνα.

[49] τίς κα τῶνδεἕλοιτο; 'who would prefer the sea and waves to this for his possession?' Verg. Ecl. ix. 39'Huc ades, o Galatea; quis est nam ludus in undis?'

ἕλοιτο takes the gen. τῶνδε from the idea of preference contained in the verb, Soph. Philoct. 1100: “ εὖτέ γε παρὸν φρονῆσαι
τοῦ λῴονος ϝελ τοῦ πλέονος᾿ δαίμονος εἵλου τὸ κάκιον αἰνεῖν.

” Cf. βούλομαι .

[51] ἀκάματον πῦρ cf. Odyss. xx. 123 ἐπ᾽ ἐσχάρῃ ἀκάματον πῦρ.

ὑπὸ σποδῷ cf. Callim. Ep. 44 πῦρ ὑπὸ τῇ σποδιῇ: Odyss. v. 488: “ ὡς δ᾽ ὅτε τις δαλὸν σποδιῇ ἐνέκρυψε μελαίνῃ
ἀγροῦ ἐπ᾽ ἐσχατιῆς, μὴ πάρα γείτονες ἄλλοι
σπέρμα πυρὸς σώζων, ἵνα μή ποθεν ἄλλοθεν αὔῃ.

[52] 52, 53 καιόμενος δὲἀνεχοίμαν, 'and fain would I endure that thou shouldst burn my very soul and that one eye.' There is a quaint confusion of the ideas of literal burning and of the fire of love.

τεῦς = σοῦ, Dialect, § 2.

ἀνεχοίμαν vid. on xvi. 67.

[54] ὤμοι, τ᾽ οὐκ ἔτεκεν, 'alas that I was not born with fins that I might have dived down to thee.' τ᾽ is for τε not τι: cf. xvi. 9; xviii. 11; xi. 79. This is shown by the fact that whereas there is no certain example of ὅτι elided, we have , ὄτε, ὅτι used indifferently in Epic, Iliad xvi. 433: “      ὤμοι ἐγών, τε μοι Σαρπηδόνα,…
μοῖρα……δαμῆναι.

Odyss. xix. 543 ὀλοφυρομένην μοι αἰετὸς ἔκτανε χῆνας. With elision Odyss. viii. 299 γίγνωσκον, τ᾽ οὐκέτι φυκτὰ πέλοντο: cf. ib. 78. Similarly Iliad xvi. 35: “      γλαυκὴ δέ σε τίκτε θάλασσα
……ὅτι τοι νόος ἐστὶν ἀπηνής.

Odyss. xxi. 254: “      τοσσόνδε βίης ἐπιδευέες εἰμὲν
ἀντιθέου ᾿Οδυσῆος, τ᾽ οὐ δυνάμεσθα τανύσσαι
τόξον.

” Cf. Theocr. xviii. 11: Odyss. xviii. 332: “ ῥά σε οἶνος ἔχει φρένας,……
…… καὶ μεταμώνια βάζεις.

” In Arist. Frogs 22 ὅτε is used as often causally:      οὐχ ὕβρις ταῦτ᾽ ἐστὶ
ὅτ᾽ ἐγὼ μὲν ὢν Διόνυσος
αὐτὸς βαδίζω.

[55] ὡς κατέδυν, 'that I might have dived,' Soph. O. T. 1392: “      τί μ᾽ οὐ λαβὼν
ἔκτεινας εὐθύς, ὡς ἔδειξα μήποτε;

” Goodwin, M. and T.

[56] κρίνα not the lily but the snowdrop, as the naive admission of 58 shows.

[60] 60, 61 νῦν μάν, 'but now,' i. e. as things now are, since I cannot live in the water like a fish I will do the best I can and learn to swim, if I can get any one to teach me. Line 61 seems to be a reminiscence of Odyss. ix. 125: “ οὐ γὰρ Κυκλώπεσσι νέες πάρα μιλτοπάρῃοι,
οὐδ᾽ ἄνδρες νηῶν ἔνι τέκτονες, οἵ κε κάμοιεν
νῆας ἐυσσέλμους.

” The Cyclops had no knowledge of life in or on the sea. A touch of humour is added when we remember that the stranger who came sailing with his ship to the Cyclops' island after this was Odysseus who found other work than to teach Polyphemus swimming. The reading of 60 is hopelessly uncertain; vid. note crit. μεμαθεῦμαι for μεμαθήσομαι is defended by Meineke who quotes A. Pal. xii. 120 μ̀αχήσομαι οὐδ᾽ ἀπεροῦμαι (= ἀπερήσομαι). But ἀπεροῦμαι seems only to be a barbarous middle for ἀπερῶ, and in any case would not be a parallel for this 'second future'; μαθεῦμαι might be taken for μαθήσομαι through a hypothetical form μαθέσομαι (vid. on viii. 91) but then γε is intolerable. None of the proposed conjectures are convincing (μασεμ̂μαι Ahrens; με μαθεῖν χρή Hartung; μεμάθοιμι Kreussler). I have written κε μάθοιμι in order to have some translatable word; but did the line end μέγα σοῦμαι̣ This is palaeographically nearer to MSS. Then αὖ τό γα must be altered; αὐτίκα Paley; αὐτόθι ed. Ant.

[63] ἐξένθοιςκαὶ ἐξενθοῖσα cf. ii. 113; xxi. 50. The repetition of the verb in the participle expresses a close conjunction of the true action, 'come, and coming straightway forget,' Soph. Elect. 1487 ὡς τάχιστα κτεῖνε καὶ κτανὼν πρόθες ταφεῦσι: Eurip. Supp. 743 ὕβριζ᾽, ὑβρίζων τ᾽ αὖθις ἀνταπώλετο.

[67] μάτηρ, κ.τ.λ. 'it is my mother only does me wrong, who never said a kind word to you on my behalf.' The words are rather an aside than addressed to Galatea in spite of ποτὶ τίν.

μάτηρ vid. Odyss. i. 71.

[68] πήποχ᾽ = πώποτε.

ποτὶ τίν λέγειν πρός τινα differs from λέγειν τινί as 'to address oneself to some one' differs from to 'say to some one'; cf. Odyss. xvi. 151; Theocr. ii. 109; xxx. 25; Isocr. 27 d δηλοῦν πρὸς ὑμᾶς.

[69] ἆμαρ ἐπ᾽ ἆμαρ, 'day after day,' A. Pal. ix. 499: “ ζωῆς ἀόριστος ἐν ἀνθρώποισι τελευτὴ
     ἦμαρ ἐπ᾽ ἦμαρ ἀεὶ πρὸς ζόφον ἐρχομένοις.

” Cf. xvii. 96; Oppian, Hal. v. 472: “      πολλαὶ δ᾽ ἠιόνων
ἀγοραὶ πέλας ἦμαρ ἐπ᾽ ἦμαρ ἱεμένων.

” Soph. Antig. 340 ἔτος εἰς ἔτος.

[70] φασῶ…, 'I will say that my head and feet are throbbing, that she may be sorry.' Fritzsche evolves a wonderful reading out of the variant φλασῶ: φλασσῶνιν σφύσδειν, 'I will break her head and feet, and make them throb.' The Greek and the conduct would be equally barbarous, φλασσῶ σφύσδειν being impossible for φλασσῶ σφύσδοντα or ὥστε σφύσδειν.

[72] Κύκλωψ Κύκλωψ Introd. p. 45; Verg. Ecl. ii. 69'Ah Corydon! Corydon! quae te dementia cepit!'” Like the surge in Idyll iii Polyphemus wearies of singing and receiving no answer; but does not as there cease in mere mortification but turns to practical politics, adding at the same time a hint of successful rivals--as he fancies them in his conceit--to Galatea, hoping thereby to find some weak spot of jealousy; cf. vi. 26.

[73] αἴκ᾽πλέκοις αἴκε with optative, Iliad v. 273; vi. 50, etc. This is not to be confused with the rare Attic use of εἰ with opt. + ἄν where the verb and ἄν = the apodosis of a suppressed condition, and the whole of this condition is in turn made subject to the εἰ, Demosth. De Cor. 190; Isocr. 220 e; Aesch. Agam. 930 εἰ πάντα δ᾽ ὣς πράσσοιμ᾽ ἂν εὐθαρσὴς ἐγώ.

[75] τὰν παρεοῖσαν, κ.τ.λ. : cf. vi. 17; xi. 19 τί τὸν φεύγοντα διώκεις; There is no reference to any particular object of pursuit, but the words are proverbial and a current form of expression; cf. Aesch. Agam. 394 ἐπεὶ διώκει παῖς ποτανὸν ὄρνιν: Hesiod. fr. 209 νήπιος ὃς τὰ ἑτοῖμα λιπὼν ἀνέτοιμα διώκει: Callim. Epig. 31: “ οὑμὸς ἔρως τοιόσδε: τὰ γὰρ φεύγοντα διώκειν
     οἶδε τὰ δ᾽ ἐν μέσσῳ κείμενα παρπέτεται.

[76] Verg. Ecl. ii 73'invenies alium, si te hic fastidit, Alexin.'

[78] ὑπακούσω, 'when I answer them'; cf. iii. 24 (vii. 95, note); Odyss. x. 83: “      ὅθι ποιμένα ποιμὴν
ἠπύει εἰσελάων, δέ τ᾽ ἐξελάων ὑπακούει.

” Arist. Acharn. 405.

[79] δῆλον τε see note on 54.

τις somebody of importance; cf. xxxiv. 30, note.

[80] 80, 81 'Thus then it was that Polyphemus tended his love, and got him ease better than by giving gold--to doctors.' The hit at Nicias is obvious, and is clearly enough expressed.

ἐποίμαινεν cf. Pind. Ol. xi. 9 τὰ μὲν ἁμετέρα γλῶσσα ποιμαίνειν ἐθέλει. Cf. the use of βουκολεῖν.

ῥᾷον δὲ διᾶγ᾽ cf. l. 7. The end of the idyll returns to the expressions of the beginning; cf. notes on ii. 157. ῥᾷον διάγειν is the regular expression for 'feeling better,' Xen. Sympos. vii. 5πολὺ ἂν οἶμαι ῥᾷον αὐτοὺς διάγειν”; Aeschin. Epist. i. 5 πολὺ ῥᾴων ἐγενόμην.

οὕτω τοι. A demonstrative pronoun with τοι is used retrospectively at the end of a narrative, with the force of 'such then is the tale you asked for'; cf. Aesch. Agam. 312 τοιοίδε τοί μοι λαμπαδηφόρων νόμοι at the end of Clytaemnestra's account of the beacon-signals from Troy.


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  • Commentary references from this page (10):
    • Aristophanes, Plutus, 901
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.1.23
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 3.4.5
    • Xenophon, Symposium, 7.5
    • Ovid, Metamorphoses, 13.834
    • Vergil, Eclogues, 2
    • Vergil, Eclogues, 4
    • Vergil, Eclogues, 7
    • Vergil, Eclogues, 8
    • Vergil, Eclogues, 9
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