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See Introd. p. 12 sqq. for a general discussion of the circumstances and character of this famous poem; ib. 13, 14 for the identification of the persons mentioned. The scene of the poem is definitely fixed as Coan by the researches of Messrs. Hicks and Paton (Inscriptions of Cos). The subjoined map shows the district.

The dotted lines show the divisions of the Demes. A. Κῴων: B. Φυξιωτῶν, with chief town Φύξα or Πύξα (vii. 130): C. Δῆμος ῾Αλεντίνων, with chief towns Pyli (Πέλη) and Alike (῞Αλεις); so Hicks and Paton, Inscr. 344 τοὶ κατοικεῦντες ἐν τῷ δάμῳ τῶν ῾Αλεντίνων καὶ τοὶ ἐνεκτημένοι καὶ τοὶ γεωργοῦντες ἐν ῞Αλεντι καὶ Πέλῃ.

The fountain Βούρινα (viii. 6) still bears the name Vourina, and is shown south-west of the town of Cos. Πόλις of line 2 is the town of Cos. ῞Αλεις may be either the deme, or the river which runs down to the sea at Alike. Hicks and Paton take it as the former, but the context suits a large district less well than a more definite spot.

Εὔκριτος. This name and those of Phrasydamus and Antigenes are doubtless real, and not pseudonyms.

[2] εἵρπομες, 'walked.'

σὐν καὶ τρίτος cf. Ap. Rhod. i. 74 σὺν καὶ τρίτος ἦεν ᾿Οιλεύς.

[3] τᾷ Δηοῖ in honour of Ceres.

θαλὑσια, 'a harvest home.' Iliad ix. 534: “      ῎Αρτεμις ὦρσε
χωσαμένη οἱ οὔτι θαλύσια γουνῷ ἀλωῆς
Οἰνεὺς ῥέξε.

[4] εἴ τί περ cf. ii. 34; Xen. Hellen. v. 3. 6ὅτι περ ὄφελος ἦν τοῦ στρατεύματος”. Περ is usually added in this idiom but can be omitted; cf. Epig. xvii. 4; A. Pal. vii. 472 (Leonidas): “ τίς μοῖρα ζωῆς ὑπολείπεται, ὅσον ὅσσον
     στιγμὴ καὶ στιγμῆς εἴ τι χαμηλότερον;

” Arist. Frogs 70: “      πότερον εἰς Αἵδου κάτω;
καὶ νὴ Δί᾽ εἴ τί γ᾽ ἔστιν ἔτι κατωτέρω.

” The construction is ἐσθλοὶ εἴ τί περ ἐσθλὸν τῶν χᾳῶν ἐστίν: cf. Epig. xvii. For the neuter cf. Callim. i. 70 εἵλεο δ᾽ αἰζήων ὅτι φέρτατον: Xenoph. Hiero i. 26.

[5] χᾳῶν τῶν ἐπάνωθεν, 'of the good fellows of old time.' χαὸν (leg. χᾳὸν) τὸ εὐγενὲς καὶ ἀρχαῖον, Schol. k. The word is elsewhere only known in the longer form χαΐος, Ar. Lys. 91.

ἐπάνωθεν cp. Epig. xxii. 3 πρᾶτος τῶν ἐπάνωθε μουσοποιῶν. Commoner ἄνωθεν, Theocr. xv. 91; xxii. 164; Plato, Timaeus 18 d τοὺς ἔμπροσθεν καὶ ἄνωθεν. Chalcon was son of Eurypylus, a legendary king of Cos, and Clytia his wife, daughter of Merops.

[6] ὃς ἐκ ποδὸς ἄνυσε, 'who made the fount Burina (Vourina) with his foot pressing his knee upon the rock.'

ἐκ cf. ii. 10; Pind. P. iv. 359 εἰρεσία δ᾽ ὑπεχώρησεν ταχεῖαν ἐκ παλαμᾶν ἄκορος ('by the might of'): i. e. he created the fountain by the pressure of his foot, while he drove his knee against the upright wall of rock. A statue of Chalcon was erected over the fountain; ἵσταται ἐν Κῷ ἀνδριὰς καὶ ἐκ τοῦ ποδὸς αὐτοῦ ἐκρέει πηγή, Schol. The fountain is mentioned also by Philetas, ἐν προχοῇσι μελαμπέτροιο Βυρίνης.

[7] ταὶ δέ deictic, 'and there hard by.'

[8] ὕφαινον cf. Milton, P. L. iv. 692 of Eve's bower: “      'τηε ροοφ
οφ τηιξκεστ ξοϝερτ ωας ινωοϝεν σηαδε
λαυρελ ανδ μψρτλε, ανδ ωηατ ηιγηερ γρεω
οφ φιρμ ανδ φραγραντ λεαφ ...'

[11] Βρασίλα. This place is not identified, nor is it known who this Brasilas was. 'K. Tümpel (Rhein. Mus. 46) suggests that it is another name for Poseidon; and that the σᾶμα--monument--was the same as that described by Pausanias, as standing near the Peiraeus Gate, near a temple of Demeter. This monument represented Poseidon vanquishing the Coan Polybotes, and was assigned not to Poseidon but to another; ? to Brasilas' (Kynaston). Poseidon was certainly connected with Cos in mythology, but the derivation proposed by Tümpel, βράσσω-λᾶας = ἐνοσί-χθων, is monstrous. Stone-thrower is not a fair substitute for earth-shaker.

τὸν ὁδίταν vid. Introd. p. 20.

[12] σὐν Μοίσαισι construe with εὕρομες cf. ii. 28, note. 'By the grace of the Muses we found our traveller, a noble fellow of Crete.'

Κυδωνικόν of Cydonia in Crete (vid. Odyss. xix. 176).

[13] Λυκίδαν Introd. p. 18.

[14] αἰπόλῳἐῴκει Introd. p. 13, where I have explained my view that this means, 'was dressed up as a goatherd.'

[15] 15, 16 'For he had on his shoulders a yellow skin from a shaggy thick-haired goat.'

κνακόν vid. iii. 5.

ἐκ is superfluous, as in ix. 10.

λασίοιο δασύτριχος two epithets without conjunction, and practically synonymous; vid. Lobeck on Ajax 708: Odyss. vii. 34 νηυσὶ θοῇσι, ὠκείῃσι: h. Apoll. 107 ποδήνεμος ὠκέα: h. Hermes, 171 πλούσιον ἀφνειὸν πολυλήιον.

ὤμοισι is locative dative, cf. ii. 121.

With the whole cf. the description of Paris in Coluthus, 107: “ καί τις ὀρεσσαύλοιο δορὴ μετόπισθε χιμαίρης
ἐκκρεμὲς ᾐώρητο καὶ αὐτῶν ἥπτετο μηρῶν:
ποιμενίη δ᾽ ὑπέκειτο βοῶν ἐλάτειρα καλαῦροψ.

[17] γέρων cf. xxi. 12, note.

[18] πλακερῷ πλατεῖ: πλακὸν γὰρ τὸ πλακύ: γράφεται δὲ καὶ πλοκερῷ παρὰ τὴν πλοκὴν καὶ τὴν ὑφήν, Schol.

[18] 18, 19 ῥοικὰνκορὑναν cf. iv. 49 λαγωβόλον.

[19] μ᾽ μοι elided, cf. iv. 58.

σεσαρώς σαίρω : the word loses its classical sense of 'grinning' in later authors, and is used of the lips half opened in a smile. Lucian, Amores, § 13 σεσηρότι γέλωτι μικρὸν ὑπομειδιῶσα.

[20] εἴχετο, 'a smile played about his lip.'

[21] Σιμιχίδα vid. Introd. pp. 8 and 16.

τὸ μεσαμέριον in the noontide; cf. i. 15.

πόδας ἕλκεις either (1) 'toil along,' or (2) simply 'walk.' The latter is supported by Herond. vii. 125: “      ἢν ἔχητε χήτερων χρείην
σαμβαλισκων κατ᾽ οἰκίην ἕλκειν
εἴθισθε.

” The former by Eurip. Medea 1181: “ ἤδη δ᾽ ἂν ἕλκων κῶλον ἑκπλέθρου δρόμου
ταχὺς βαδιστὴς τερμόνων ἀνθήπτετο.

[22] ἐν αἱμασιαῖσι (ἐν, k; ἐφ᾽, vulg.): cf. Herod. ii. 69 οἱ κροκόδειλοι (lizards) οἱ ἐν τῇσι αἱμασιῇσι. The αἱμασιά was a rough wall of stones built without mortar and affording plenty of holes for lizards to lie in. For the picture of noonday quiet cf. l. 15 sqq, and Tennyson's Oenone: 'For now the noonday quiet holds the hill:
The grasshopper is silent in the grass:
The lizard, with his shadow on the stone,
Rests like a shadow, and the winds are dead.'

” (Callim. vii. 72 μεσαμβρινὰ δ᾽ εἶχ᾽ ἔρος ἁσυχία.

[24] μετὰ δαῖτα. Cobet would alter to κατὰ δαῖτα, but μετά in such phrases as this means, 'to go to join.' Cf. Iliad xix. 346 οἱ δὲ δὴ ἄλλοι οἴχονται μετὰ δεῖπνον: Theocr. xxv. 87: Ap. Rhod. ii. 460: “      στόλον ἀνδρῶν
῾Ελλάδος ἐξανιόντα μετὰ πτόλιν Αἰήταο.

” It is only when used with a noun denoting a moveable thing that it means 'to fetch'; cf. xiii. 16; xxix. 38; Iliad xiii. 248; Arist. Acharn. 728.

[25] τοινισσομένοιο. τοι = σοι, and the construction passes from the dative (of person concerning) to gen. abs.; cf. Iliad xvi. 531 ὅττι οἱ ὦκ᾽ ἤκουσεεὐξαμένοιο: Ap. Rhod. iii. 371ἐκ δέ οἱ ὄμματ᾽ ἔλαμψεν ὑπ᾽ ὀφρύσιν ἱεμένοιο”: Theocr. xxv. 67.

[26] ἀείδει, 'rings.'

[27] ἀμείφθην first in Pindar, P. iv. 180; see New Phrynichus, p. 187; Babrius, xii. 19 (Rutherford, ad loc.).

[31] θαλυσιάς, 'this journey leads to a harvest-home.' The adj. is used freely for πρὸς τὰ θαλύσια. Cf. Καρνείαδες ὧραι, Callim. Apoll. 87; οἴχετ᾽ ἀπαυλόσυνος ἀπὸ τῆς αὐλῆς, Leonidas, A. Pal. vi. 221.

[34] εὔκριθον predicatively. 'Filled up with wealth of grain.'

[35] ξυνὰ γάρ, 'the way is ours together, ours together the day.'

ἀώς bears this sense frequently in Alex. writers; cf. Bion, iii. (Hermann) 18 χἁ νὺξ ἀνθρώποισιν ἴσα καὶ ὁμοίϊος ἀώς. For the style of the line, see Introd. p. 41, and Ap. Rhod. iii. 173ξυνὴ γὰρ χρειώ, ξυνοὶ δέ τε μῦθοι ἔασι.

[36] ἄλλον cf. vi. 47, note.

[37] καπυρόν orig. 'dry'; then of sound, 'clear ringing.' Cf. the Latin 'argutus.' Lucian, i. 271 μουσικός εἰμι καὶ συρίζω πάνυ καπυρόν: Longus, ii. 5. 1 πανὺ καπυρὸν γελάσας.

στόμα cf. Epit. Bion. ῞Ομηρος τῆνο τὸ Καλλιόπας γλυκερὸν στόμα.

[38] οὐ ταχυπειθής cf. ii. 138.

[40] Σικελίδαν vid. Introd. p. 15. There is no indication of the origin of this name for Asclepiades. Hiller's notion that we have to deal with an anagram, 'since the consonants of the name Sicelidas are all found and in the same order in Asclepiades,' is most unlikely. On Philetas, see Introd. pp. 10 and 20.

[41] βάτραχος, 'I am matched like a frog against cicadae.'

[42] ἐπἰταδες, 'to suit my purpose'; Lucian, i. 255 φησὶ δ᾽ οὖν ὅτι ἄλλως ἐπελθὸν οὐκ ἐξεπίτηδες ἤρετο ('she asked with no particular object but just at random'): Lysias, i. 11 τὸ παιδίον ὑπὸ τῆς θεραπαίνης ἐπίτηδες λυπούμενον ἵνα ταῦτα ποιῇ.

[44] πεπλασμένον, κ.τ.λ. 'thou art an olive branch moulded in truth by Zeus.'

ἔρνος after the Homeric δ᾽ ἀνέδραμεν ἔρνεϊ ἶσος (Iliad xviii. 56).

ἐκ of agent, cf. vii. 112, etc.

ἐπ᾽ ἀλαθείᾳ not I think 'for truth'--ἐπί expressing the object aimed at, but keeping the metaphor of πεπλασμένον, 'made on the mould of truth.' Cf. Pindar, P. i. 167 ἀψευδεῖ δὲ πρὸς ἄκμονι χάλκευε γλῶσσαν.

[46] 'Who strives to raise a house as high as the crest of a lordly mountain.'

εὐρυμέδοντος a fine epithet for a hill whose domain is as wide as the prospect from its summit. So Pindar, N. ii. 29 ὑψιμέδοντι Παρνασῷ. Empedocles has the same epithet of αἰθήρ. [The v. l. ᾿Ωρομέδοντος, though better supported by MSS., is certainly inferior in itself.]

[48] ἐτώσια μοχθίζοντι cf. i. 38; Pindar, Ol. ii. 156: “      λάβροι
παγγλωσσίᾳ, κόρακες ὥς, ἄκραντα γαρυέμεν
     Διὸς πρὸς ὄρνιχα θεῖον:

vid. Introd. p. 20. As this idyll belongs to the first Coan period there can be no reference as so often supposed to Apollonius. The same sentiment is expressed by Callim. ii. 105: “ ῾Ο φθόνος ᾿Απόλλωνος ἐς οὔατα λάθριος εἶπεν
οὐκ ἄγαμαι τὸν ἀοιδὸν ὃς οὐδ᾽ ὅσα πόντος ἀείδει, κ.τ.λ.

[50] κἠγὼ μέν. The sentence is not finished, but passes naturally into a new construction and turn of expression.

[51] ἐξεπόνασα the song, therefore, is not an impromptu, but one already elaborated like the Daphnis-elegy of Id. i. See Introd. p. 21.

[53] χὥταν, 'when the Kids are in the western sky and the south wind chases the waves, and Orion stands upon the seas.'

ἐφ᾽ ἑσπερίοις ἐρίφοις. ἐπί is used here of simultaneous time, or circumstances; cf. Ap. Rhod. i. 329: “      ἰλλομένοις ἐπὶ λαίφεσιν, ἠδὲ καὶ ἱστῷ
κεκλιμένῳ, μάλα πάντες ἐπισχερὼ ἑδριόωντο

” (while the sails were furling)--an equivalent of gen. absol.; cf. Id. i. 514 ὀρθοῖσιν ἐπ᾽ οὔασιν ἠρεμέοντες κηληθμῷ ('arrectis auribus'): Id. i. 1013 ἐπὶ πνοιῇς ἀνέμοιο. In Attic ἐπί so used signifies succession, 'after.' ἐπὶ χιόνι πεσούσῃ, Herodot. ii. 22; ἐπ᾽ ἀσφάκτοις μήλοις, Eur. Ion 228. The Kids--a cluster of stars in Auriga--are low down in the north-west sky (altit. 30°) one hour before sunrise on Nov. 28. Orion is at the same time just touching the horizon, so that he may be said to stand on the sea. Theocritus here speaks of the 'cosmical' setting. Cf. Aratus, 308 τῆμος (at end of November) δύεται ἠῶθι πρὸ ἀθρόος ᾿Ωρίων.

ἑσπερίοις Aratus, 1065 καὶ ἑσπερἱων προπάροιθεν Πληϊάδων i. e. early autumn). Cf. further, Theocr. xxiv. 10; Hesiod, ῎Εργ. 619.

[54] ἴσχῃ (ἴσχη k) is required here as we have two coordinate time clauses, χὥτανχὡρίων ὅτε. Most editors read ἴσχει, vid. xvi. 95, note.

[57] ἁλκυόνες. The belief was current that while the halcyon was sitting calm weather prevailed. Simonides 12: “ ὡς ὁπόταν χειμέριον κατὰ μῆνα πινύσκῃ
Ζεὺς ἄματα τέσσαρα καὶ δέκα
λαθάνεμόν τέ μιν ὥραν καλέοισιν ἐπιχθὀνιοι
ἱρὰν παιδοτρόφον ποικίλας ἁλκυόνος.

[58] ἔσχατα, 'from the bottom of the sea.' Fritzsche, quoting A. Pal. xiii. 27 βίῃ νότου πρήσαντος ἐσχάτην ἅλα, which does not prove this meaning for ἔσχατος: cf. xvi. 51, note. Others translate 'from the furthest shore.'

[60] ἐφίληθεν. For aorist cf. xv. 100; Arist. Frogs 229: “ ἐμὲ γὰρ ἔστερξαν εὔλυροί τε Μοῦσαι
καὶ κεροβάτας Πάν.

[62] ὥρια, 'seasonable.'

εὔπλοον = εἰς ὃν εὖ πλεύσειεν ἄν τις: Aesch. Agam. 665 ὡς μήτ᾽ ἐν ὅρμῳ κύματος ζάλην ἔχειν: Quint. Smyrn. xiv. 623 ἐλπομένους εὔορμον ἕδος λιμένων ἀφικέσθαι.

[64] φυλάσσων, 'wearing.'

[65] τὸν Πτελεατικὸν οἶνον, 'our wine of Ptelea.' There were numerous places of this name, one being in Cos according to the Scholiast. Lycidas means doubtless some local vintage. The regular Coan wine was noted for its medicinal properties chiefly. The idea that Πτελεατικόν is to be derived from πτελέα, 'an elm-tree' (wine from vines trained on elms or wine flavoured with elm) is barred by the form of the word. We should have then πτελεϊτὴς οἶνος: cf. σταφυλίτης, ῥοδίτης, κεδρίτης, ῥοίτης, etc.; and among the many plants used to flavour wine among the Greeks elm is--happily--not mentioned.

[68] For form of line cf. iv. 25--three nouns joined by τε, the last with epithet. So xiii. 45; Odyss. v. 64, 66; iii. 434, 451; ix. 24; xxi. 10, etc.

[69] μαλακῶς, 'at my ease.'

μεμνημένος I will drink to the memory of Ageanax; cf. A. Pal. vii. 452 (Leonidas): “ μνήμης Εὐβούλοιο σαόφρονος παριόντες
πίνωμεν.

[70] αὐταῖσιν. This has been variously explained: (1) with ἐρείδων, 'pressing my lips right into the cups' (Hartung); (2) 'exhauriens calicem ut solus relictus sit calix' (Fritzsche). This is impossible; the first is not good sense. Others emend γλυπταῖς ἐν (Jacobs), αὐαῖς ἐν Graefe (so Hiller) proleptically, 'draining the cup.' If any alteration is required I should prefer αὔτως ἐν κυλίκεσσι, 'idly,' but αὐταῖσιν may possibly be kept in the sense of 'merus,' 'unmixed'; cf. αὐτοκρηής and αὐτοκέραστος, Nicand. Alex. 162 δέπας ἔμπλεον οἴνης Πραμνίου αὐτοκρηές.

[71] 71, 72 See Introd.

εἶς μέν for μέν, δέ, Callim. Ep. i. 3. μία μὲν δὴ νύμφη καὶ πλούτῳ καὶ γενεῇ κατ᾽ ἐμὲ δ᾽ ἑτέρη προβέβηκεν.

[73] Ξενέας see note on i. 65.

[74] ὄρος ἀμφ᾽ ἐπονεῖτο, 'how the hills round about sorrowed for him, and how the oaks mourned.' Inanimate nature weeps as the beasts do in i. 71 sqq. Cf. Bion, Epit. Adon. 31 τὰν Κύπριν αἰαῖ ὥρεα πάντα λέγοντι καὶ αἱ δρύες αἰαῖ ῎Αδωνιν: Epit. Bion. 1: “ αἴλινά μοι στοναχεῖτε νάπαι καὶ Δώριον ὕδωρ
καὶ ποταμοὶ κλαίοιτε τὸν ἱμερόεντα Βίωνα.

” Milton, Lycidas: 'τηεε, σηεπηερδ, τηεε τηε ωοοδς, ανδ δεσερτ ξαϝες,
ανδ αλλ τηειρ εξηοες μουρν.'

[75] φὑοντι cf. iv. 24, note.

[76] For construction cf. v. 38, note, 'when he faded as fades a streak of snow under the ridge of Haemus.'

τις is unusual with χιών. For the simile cf. Odyss. xix. 205: “ ὡς δὲ χιὼν κατατήκετ᾽ ἐν ἀκροπόλοισιν ὄρεσσιν,
ἥντ᾽ Εὖρος κατέτηξεν ἐπὴν Ζέφυρος καταχεύῃ:
………
ὣς τῆς τήκετο καλὰ παρήϊα δάκρυ χεούσης.

” Callim. vi. 91: “ ὡς δὲ Μίμαντι χιὼν ὡς ἀελίῳ ἔνι πλαγγὼν
καὶ τούτων ἔτι μᾶλλον ἐτάκετο.

[78] λάρναξ. The shepherd Comatas was shut in a chest by his master because he sacrificed cattle to the Muses. After a year the chest was opened and it was found that Comatas had been miraculously fed by bees and his life preserved. The fable was told by Lycus of Rhegium, and elder contemporary of Theocritus, father by adoption of the poet Lycophron.

[80] 80, 81 αἱ σιμαὶμέλισσαι. For order cf. xvi. 34, 35.

ἄνθεσσι, 'honey'; cf. xv. 116; Verg. Geor. iv. 39, 250 'floribus' = pollen.

[82] νέκταρ Hesiod, Theogn. 83: “ τῷ μὲν ἐπὶ γλώσσῃ γλυκερὴν χείευσιν ἐέρσην
τοῦ δ᾽ ἔπε᾽ ἐκ στόματος ῥεῖ μείλιχα.

[83] πεπόνθεις pluperf. τερπνὰ πεπόνθεις; cf. Isocr. 199 d συνέβη γὰρ αὐτῷ διὰ τὴν ἄφιξιν τὴν εἰς Κύπρον παὶ ποιῆσαι καὶ παθεῖν πλεῖοτ᾽ ἀγαθά.

[85] ἔτος ὥριον apparently = 'the year in all its seasons,' i. e. a whole year.

ἐξεπόνασας, 'wert oppressed'; 'Comatas, licet de victu non laboraret, libertate tamen privatus et in cavea quasi inclusus erat' (Wuestemann).

[86] αἴθ᾽ ἐπ᾽ ἐμεῦ, 'wouldst thou had been numbered among the living in my day, that I might be tending thy goats on the hillside: listening to thy voice whilst thou lay 'neath the oaks or pines sweetly singing, Comatas half-divine.'

[87] ἐνόμευον cf. iv. 49, note.

καλάς Dial. § 1.

[91] πολλὰ μὲν ἄλλα ii. 67, note.

[93] Ζηνός. Many commentators take this as = Πτολεμαίου. On the view taken of the circumstances of this idyll this is impossible, since Theocritus had not yet sought the patronage of the Alexandrian court. Nor is it necessary to foist on the poet such a subordination of taste to odious flattery, but the words mean what they say, that the poet's song is heard of God himself; cf. Odyss. viii. 74 οἴμης τῆς τότ᾽ ἄρα κλέος οὐρανὸν εὐρὺν ἵκανεν: Arist. Birds 215: “ καθαρὰ χωρεῖ διὰ φυλλοκόμου
μίλακος ἠχὼ πρὸς Διὸς ἕδρας

” (of the nightingale's song).

[94] γεραίρειν cf. Epit. Bion. 103: “ ἄμμε γεραίρων
ἄλλοις μὲν τεὸν ὄλβον ἐμοὶ δ᾽ ἀπέλειπες ἀοιδάν.

[95] ὑπάκουσον, 'give ear'; vid. Liddell and Scott, s. v. In Attic usage ἐπακούω is generally 'to listen to.' ὑπακούω to 'answer when called'; cf. iii. 24; xi. 78.

[96] ἐπέπταρον. Sneezing has been at all times and in all countries regarded as a lucky omen; cf. xviii. 16; Odyss. xvii. 545; Catullus, xlv. 8: “ 'ηοξ υτ διχιτ αμορ σινιστρα υτ αντε
δεχτραμ στερνυιτ αππροβατιονεμ.'

[97] εἴαρος Dial. § 1 ἐρᾷἐρᾶντι, Introd. p. 43. The point of the comparison lies in the gay carelessness of all nature in spring.

[98] ῎Αρατος Introd. p. 16. The general idea of the song is 'I am happy and careless in my love: but my friend Aratus loves too, and Aristis knows about it. I know not whom he loves, perhaps Philinus, perhaps another. Whosoever it is may Aratus be lucky, and Pan help him, and be requited for his help.' So far ironically; then the pretended ignorance is laid aside. 'It is Philinus and he shall be made to care. Yet after all Aratus is but an over ripe pear and not worth our toil; we can find better things to do than wearing shoe leather and wearying ourselves; let another torture himself and let us have peace.' A different version is given by Wilamowitz-Moellendorf (Aratos von Kos, p. 187 sqq.). See notes on 118, 123.

ἀνέρι τήνῳ = Σιμιχίδᾳ.

[99] ῎Αριστιςἄριστος. The play on words (cf. xxvi. 26) shows that the name ῎Αριστις is either genuine or but slightly changed. Among Coan names preserved in inscriptions we have ῎Αριστος, ᾿Αριστεύς, ᾿Αριστίων, and a large number with ᾿Αριστο- for prefix (Hicks and Paton, Inscriptions of Cos, Appendix, ᾿Αριστόβουλος, etc.). No actual identification is possible.

[101] σὺν φόρμιγγι join with ἀείδειν. τοῦτον δὲ τὸν ῎Αριστιν οὐδὲ ᾿Απόλλων ἐν Πυθῶνι παρὰ τοῖς ἰδίοις τρίποσι κιθαρῳδοῦντα ἰδὼν ἀποστραφήσεται οὐδὲ φθονήσει αὐτῷ ᾁδειν ἐκεῖ, Schol.

[103] ῾Ομόλας a mountain in Thessaly, not otherwise known as a centre of Pan worship; cf. Eur. H. F. 371.

[104] ἄκλητονἐρείσαις, 'lay him uncalled in my friend's arms.'

[105] ἆρα for ἄρα cf. Plutarch, Lys. 20 οὐκ ἆρ᾽ ᾿Οδυσσεύς ἐστιν αἱμύλος μόνος, A. Pal. vi. 147. More often with interrogative words, Herond. iv. 21: “      τίς ἦρα τὴν λίθον ταύτην
τέκτων ἐποίει;

ἄρα added to εἰ or ἐάν = possibly. Plato, Rep. 433 a ἄκουε εἴ τι ἄρα λέγω (see Ast, Lex. Plat. s. v.). The Philinus in question may be the same as that of ii. 115 (vid. note there). If so we must lower the date of this idyll as much as possible; but there is no necessity for the identification. If the theory, proposed by Knaack, that Φιλῖνος is a pet name for Φιλοκλῆς be accepted, then the Philocles might well be the same as one mentioned by Leonidas, A. Pal. vi. 309.

[108] παρείη general time clause; optative by assimilation to μαστίσδοιεν, cf. vi. 24; Mimnernus 1 τεθναίην ὅτε μοι μηκέτι ταῦτα μέλοι. On the custom the Scholiast writes Μούνατός φησιν ἑορτὴν ᾿Αρκαδικὴν εἶναι ἐν οἱ παῖδες τὸν Πᾶνα σκίλλαις βάλλουσι: γίνεται δὲ τοῦτο ὅταν οἱ χορηγοὶ λεπτὸν ἱερεῖον θύσωσι καὶ μὴ ἱκανὸν τοῖς ἐσθίουσι.

[110] κνάσαιο κνήθω), 'scratch yourself.' Mark the alliteration κ, χ, χ, κν, κν, κ, κν, κ.

[111] sqq. ᾿Ηδωνῶν i. e. in wintry Thrace, Verg. Ecl. x. 65. τετραμμένος, better joined with πὰρ ποταμόν than with ἐγγύθεν ἄρκτω, 'turning in the way by the riverside'; cf. Iliad xxi. 603: “      τὸν πεδίοιο διώκετο πυροφόροιο
τρέψας πὰρ ποταμόν.

ἄρκτω the 'Great Bear.' Βλεμύες ἔθνος Αἰθιοπικὸν μελανόχρουν Schol. Theocritus places them beyond the sources of the Nile. The town Aenus at the mouth of the river Hebrus has a figure of Pan on its coins. The god of the Nubians (Aethiopians) was identified by the Greeks with Pan. We have therefore two pieces of curious learning in this passage (Wilamowitz). Such recondite allusions are remarkably rare in Theocritus.

[115] Hyetis and Byblis are hills and fountains in the district of Miletus. Oeceus, a spot sacred to Aphrodite in the same neighbourhood; see xxviii. 4.

Διώνας = ᾿Αφροδίτης, not as in xvii. 36.

[119] βάλλετε, κ.τ.λ. : cf. A. Pal. v. 86: “ ἀλλὰ Πόθοι πρὸς μητρὸς ἐυστεφάνου Κυθερείης,
     φλέξατε τὴν ἀπιθῆ, μέχρις ἐρεῖ, "Φλέγομαι."

” See note on 98. Wilamowitz interprets the line, 'make Philinus love another and suffer what Aratus suffers loving him.' The antithesis of l. 120 seems to suit the other version better.

[121] ἄνθος, 'the bloom of thy beauty.'

[122] μηκέτι τοι, 'then let us no longer watch at his door, Aratus'; cf. Charito, A. ii. 3 ἡμεῖς δὲ παρετάθημεν αὐλείαις θύραις προσαγρυπνοῦντες, κ.τ.λ.: Propert. i. 16. 17: “ 'Ianua vel domina penitus crudelior ipsa,
     Quid mihi tam duris clausa taces foribus?
.........
     Me mediae noctes, me sidera plena (v. l. prona) iacentem,
Frigidaque Eoo me dolet aura gelu.'

φρουρέωμες. Wilamowitz - Moellendorf (Aratos von Kos, p. 186) regards the 1st person as due merely to an identification on Theocritus' part of himself with his friend. 'Theocritus,' he maintains, 'does not paint an actual scene--the two standing together through the night at the door--μηδὲ πόδας τρίβωμες refers to running after Philinus all day.' With due respect to so high an authority I cannot but think that this is the very reverse of the truth. τρίβωμες is to be taken literally, Aratus is accompanied by his friend for the ignorance of the object of Aratus' care was only assumed (cf. ii. 119), and ὄρθριος ἀλέκτωρ, κ.τ.λ., loses all its force if we refer it merely to the reminder that morning has come after a sleepless night in one's own bed!

[123] δ᾽ ὄρθριος, 'and let the morning cockcrow resign another to cruel numb despair.'

[124] νάρκαισιν might also be the chill of morning (cf. Propert. loc. cit.), but the word is commonly used of mental rather than physical torpor.

διδοίη cf. Iliad v. 397 εὖτέ μινβαλὼν ὀδύνῃσιν ἔδωκεν.

[125] εἷς almost = τις though rather more definite. Plato, Laws iv. 716 c πρᾶξις μία καὶ ἕνα λόγον ἔχουσα ἀρχαῖον. Ast, Lex. Plat. s. v. εἷς. παλαίστρας is used metaphorically of the fruitless effort; cf. i. 97.

ἄγχοιτο also a metaphor from wrestling. 'Let one--Molon--be gripped hard in this toil.'

[126] 126, 127 'But let peace of mind be ours,' etc. Ap. Rhod. iii. 640ἄμμι δὲ παρθενίη τε μέλοι καὶ δῶμα τοκήων.

ἐπιφθυζοισα cf. ii. 62.

ἅτιςἐρύκοι a relative sentence dependent on an optative of wish, and defining its subject takes the optative without ἄν: cf. xv. 94: Soph. Trach. 954: “ Εἴθ᾽ ἀνεμόεσσά τις
γένοιτ᾽αὔρα,
ἥτις μ᾽ ἀποικίσειεν ἐκ τόπων.

” This dependent clause is not final but consecutive, and the optative is due to assimilation, i.e. such a sentence as οὔκ ἐστι θνητῶν ὅστις ἐξεπίσταται becomes μὴ εἴη θνητῶν ὅστις ἐξεπίσταιτο. But such a consecutive relative, dependent on an optative with ἄν, takes normally the optative with ἄν. Plato, Rep. 360 b οὐδεὶς ἂν γένοιτο οὕτως ἀδαμάντινος ὃς ἂν μείνειεν. Examples to the contrary are dubious or capable of another explanation. [Lysias], i. 1 οὐκ ἂν εἴη ὅστις οὐκ ἀγανακτοίη: Arist. Frogs 98: “ γόνιμον δὲ ποιητὴν ἂν οὐχ εὕροις ἔτι
ζητῶν ἂν ὅστις ῥῆμα γενναῖον λάκοι.

λάκοι may either be deliberative, dependent on ζητῶν, or conditional (= γόνιμος ἂν εἴη εἴ τις λάκοι): cf. viii. 11, note.

[130] τὰν ἐπὶ Πύξας see sketch-map in Preface. The road taken by Theocritus and his friends must therefore have laid to the north of Pyxa. For ἐπὶ Πύξας cf. Xen. Hellen. v. 1. 26ἐδίωκον αὐτὸν τὴν ἐπὶ Προκοννήσου.

[132] ᾿Αμύντιχος a diminutive of ᾿Αμύντας (v. 2); cf. iv. 20, note.

[134] οἰναρέοισι adject. used substantivally, 'vine leaves. Vid. Index, Adjectives.

[135] κατὰ κρατός, 'and many a branch of poplar and elm swayed and dipped above our heads.' κατά not ὑπέρ (τινασσομένων γὰρ ὕπερθεν καρπὸς ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς αὐτὸν ἔφευγε φυτῶν, A. Pal. ix. 377) because downward motion is intended.

[136] ἱερόν cf. viii. 33.

[137] κελάρυζε cf. Iliad xxi. 261 τὸ δέ τ᾽ ὦκα κατειβόμενον κελαρύζει.

[138] αἰθαλίωνες, 'dusky.' A. Pal. vii. 196 (Meleager): “ ἄκρα δ᾽ ἐφεζόμενος πετάλοις πριονώδεσι κώλοις
     αἰθίοπι κλάζεις χρωτὶ μέλισμα λύρας.

” The word is a diminutive form of αἴθαλος (also αἰθαλόεις, αἰθαλέος); cf. Ζωπυρίων, xv. 13 ζώπυρος: κνάκων, κνακός.

[139] ἔχον πόνον cf. xxi. 187; Hesiod. Scut. 305: “ παρ᾽ δ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἱππῆες ἔχον πόνον ἀμφὶ δ᾽ ἀέθλοις
δῆριν ἔχον καὶ μόχθον.

ὀλολυγών, 'the tree-frog.' ᾿Αριστοφάνης φησὶν ὅτι πάνυ ὀλολύζει τὸ ζῷον μάλιστα ἐν τοῖς ἑλώδεσι τόποις καὶ κατὰ νύκτα, Schol. A. Pal. v. 291: “ καὶ λιγυρὸν βομβεῦσιν (!) ἀκανθίδες: δ᾽ ὀλολυγὼν
     τρύζει τρηχαλέαις ἐνδιάουσα βάτοις.

” Aratus, 948 (among signs of rain) τρύζει ὀρθρινὸν ἐρημαίη ὀλολυγών: where the Scholiast interprets the word to mean ὄρνεον κατὰ τὴν τρυγόνα.

[142] ξουθαί a frequent epithet of bees, of the nightingale (Aesch. Agam. 1142); of wings (h. hymn Diosc. xiii); of wind (Chaeremon in Athen. 608 D). ξουθὸς ἱππαλεκτρυών, Arist. Birds 800 (parody of Aeschyl.). In all passages but the last the word is best taken of sound--'shrill'--only so can we give it a consistent meaning. With ἱππαλεκτρυών it may be used of colour; φοινικᾶ πτερὰ ἔχων, Schol. Ar. Pax 1177. Dr. Rutherford (on Babrius, 118) writes, 'Originally possessing a precise signification it afterwards dropped out of use till it was taken up by the higher poetry to which the indefiniteness of meaning produced by time had a literary value ... and the late literary schools ended by assigning to the word the meaning which they fancied best suited the two or three classical passages, but to which the word may or may not originally have had any claim.' 'When I use a word,' Humpty Dumpty said in rather a scornful tone, 'it means just what I choose it to mean--neither more nor less. ... They've a temper some of them, particularly verbs--they're the proudest--adjectives you can do anything with but not verbs.' With the whole description, cf. Plato, Phaedr. 230 b.

περὶἀμφί cf. Iliad ii. 305 ἀμφὶ περὶ κρήνην: Theocr. xxv. 103, 256: νόσφιν ἄτερ φιλότητος, Hesiod, Scut. 15.

[147] ἄλειφαρ Horace, Odes iii. 8, 10 'corticem adstrictum pice dimovebit amphorae.'

κρατός, 'neck of the wine jar.'

[148] Νύμφαι Κασταλίδες. The Nymphs as well as the Muses are patronesses of song; cf. Verg. Ecl. vii. 21'Nymphae noster amor Libethrides'” (Conington, ad loc.): Theocr. vii. 91.

[149] Φόλω. According to one tradition Pholus, one of the Centaurs, according to the present Chiron entertained Heracles with a famous old wine given by Dionysus.

[150] ἐστήσατο cf. v. 58.

[151] ᾿Ανάπῳ cf. i. 68.

[152] νᾶας ἔβαλλε Odyss. ix. 481.

[153] ποσσί superfluous as in βαίνει ποσί, viii. 43; Odyss. xvii. 27 κραιπνὰ ποσὶ προβιβάς: A. Pal. vi. 268 κατ᾽ εἰνοσίφυλλον ὅρος ποσὶ πότνια βαίνεις, etc.

ἔπεισεχορεῦσαι, 'set a dancing'; cf. iv. 11; Herond. i. 8 τίς σε μοῖρ᾽ ἔπεισ᾽ ἐλθεῖν. So iubeo, Propert. ii. 6. 17: “      'Centauros eadem dementia iussit
Frangere in adversum pocula Pirithoum.'

[154] διεκρανάσατε, 'poured from your spring.'

Νύμφαι in v. 148 the Nymphs are not the Muses, but the Nymphs of the fountain Castalia, queen of all fountains, and therefore the source of all fountains. Hence the Nymphs of Castalia are deities of all springs and may be invoked by the waterside in Cos (Wilamowitz-Moellendorf, loc. cit. p. 193). According to the Greek custom the wine (v. 147) would be mixed with water from the spring; hence the Nymphs are said to be the givers of the draught.

Recently J. Schmidt (Rhein. Mus. 45) has offered a new explanation, taking πῶμα metaphorically = a draught of song. This would be very obscure in this context among κρατῆρα, νέκταρ, διεκρανάσατε, with no mention of song, although the metaphorical use of πῶμα can be easily supported. Pind. Is. vi. 1: “ θάλλοντος ἀνδρὸς ὡς ὅτε συμποσίου
δεύτερον κρητῆρα Μουσάων μελέων κίρναμεν

A. Pal. ix. 364 ὅσσοι γὰρ προχέουσιν ἀοιδοτόκου πόμα πηγῆς.

[155] sqq. ἀλῳάδος, 'of the threshing-floor.'

πτύον, 'winnowing-fan.'

δὲ γελάσσαι (opt.), parataxis for 'while she smiles holding the sheaves and poppies in either hand.' The words seem obviously to refer to a statue--or rough figure of Demeter--decked with corn and poppies.


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  • Commentary references from this page (10):
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 5.1.26
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 5.3.6
    • Xenophon, Hiero, 1.26
    • Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 3.173
    • Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 3.371
    • Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 3.640
    • Vergil, Eclogues, 10
    • Vergil, Eclogues, 7
    • Vergil, Georgics, 4.250
    • Vergil, Georgics, 4.39
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