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We find in Plautus the same types of this Tense as in all periods of Latin, such as the Present of unachieved action, e.g. Mil. 36A. quid illuc quod dico (= volo dicere)? B. ehem, scio iam quid vis dicere”; longum est ‘it would be tedious,’ etc., e.g. Mil. 694flagitiumst, si nihil mittetur”, but also Past, e.g. Also the Historical Present, e.g. Mil. 287 sq.forte fortuna per impluvium huc despexi in proxumum: atque ego illi aspicio osculantem Philocomasium” (often with quom, quoniam and other temporal Conjunctions, VIII. 10).

In all languages the Present may play the part of a Future, especially with the Verb ‘to go,’ e.g. ‘I go to-morrow,’ and in Attic Greek this usage has been carried so far that εἶμι is the recognised Future Tense. In Old Latin this use of the Present is less in evidence than in modern languages and is mostly confined to some Verbs of motion, especially eo and its Compounds. In Plautus with redeo the Present is normal in a phrase like iam ad te redeo (Mil. 1020, etc.), (but the Future of revertor, e.g. Pseud. 1159, and the Future Perfect of revenio, e.g. Bacch. 1066); with eo, exeo, transeo, etc., also with viso1, inviso, the Present is more frequent than the Future, while with sum (e.g. iam ego hic ero), adsum, and other Verbs the Future is used. (For details see Sjögren: Gebrauch des Futurums im Altlateinischen. Upsala, 1906, chap. i.) The Present is also normal with non, after a Command. e.g. Stich. 93A. adside hic, pater. B. non sedeo istic, vos sedete: ego sedero in subsellio”; also with quam mox and iam in questions, e.g. Truc. 208quam mox te huc recipis?”, Mil. 1400iamne ego in hominem involo?” Also in various types of Conditional Sentences (see VIII. 5), e.g. si sapis (or sapies), tacebis; si vivo, te ulciscar; hoc faciam, si possum exorare ‘in hope to’; especially after nisi in threats, e.g. Cas. 730dabo tibi μέγα κακόν . . . nisi resistis”. In questions, when asking the advice of another, quid ago?, not quid agam?, is Plautus' phrase, but quid faciam? is used both in dialogue and soliloquy; also however quid fit?

The use of the Present for the Future in Temporal Sentences with dum, priusquam, etc., is discussed in VIII. 10 On the use of the Present Subjunctive in a Future sense, e.g. Trin. 1136sed maneam etiam, opinor”, and the Dubitative Present Subjunctive, see below, 26

1 Viso seems to be of the same formation as the old Futures (or S-Aorist Subjunctive) dixo, amasso, etc.

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