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Various uses of the Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses, such as are common to Plautine and classical Latin and need not detain us. But attention must be called to the freedom of the Subjunctive in Plautus' time in contrast to certain restrictions which attached to it later. The rule that Causal (and Concessive) quom requires the Subjunctive, is, as will be shown in Chap. VIII, unknown to Plautus. He usually employs the Indicative, e.g. Mil. 1211saltem id volup est, quom ex virtute formai evēnit tibi”; although he can say, e.g. Mil. 1342nequeo quin fleam, quom abs te abeam”, Most. 896tibi obtemperem, quom tu mihi nequeas?” (cf. Capt. 146quomferas”), just as he uses Indicative as well as Subjunctive after Causal qui in

A. servum hercle te esse oportet et nequam et malum,
hominem peregrinum atque advenam qui irrideas.
B. at hercle te hominem et sycophantam et subdolum,
qui huc advenisti nos captatum.

In classical Latin quamvis postulates the Subjunctive, quamquam the Indicative But to Plautus quamvis means ‘as you wish,’ ‘as much as you wish,’ and scarcely has acquired the sense of ‘although’ (see VIII. 4). With est qui, sunt qui, est ubi, etc., it is not always easy to see what determines the use of the Subjunctive (e.g. Poen. 884quid est quod metuas?”) and the Indicative (e.g. Ter. Andr. 448est quod suscenset tibi”; cf. the frequent sunt quae volo, etc., e.g. Capt. 263sunt quae ex te solo scitari volo”). (For fuller statistics see Dittmar: Studien zur lateinischen Moduslehre. Leipzig, 1897, pp. 10 sqq.) Here are some examples of the Subjunctive and Indicative in Dependent Clauses:

For examples with quod, quippe quî, utpote qui, etc., see VIII. 2

In Conditional Sentences we see the utmost freedom in Plautus. The difficulty of framing rules for his use of Indicative and Subjunctive is often very difficult (see VIII. 5).

1 Qui quidem with Subjunctive has not only this limitative function (with Indicative, e.g. Ter. Adelph. 692 perdidisti . ., quod quidem in te fuit; cf. p. 71), but others too. Thus it is the equivalent of classical Latin quippe qui in a line like Bacch. 1132 merito hoc nobis fit, qui quidem huc venerimus. Other examples are Poen. 1213, Trin. 552, 953.

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