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The use of the Verbal Adjective in -tus as a Perfect Participle Passive and Deponent and the formation of a Perfect Passive Tense, out of this Adjective with the Auxiliary Verb sum (or fui) are also more or less peculiar to the Italic languages. In Greek ἀγαπητός ἐστι never came to mean more than φίλος ἐστὶ (cf. however γεγραμμένον ἐστὶ beside γέγραπται). Some traces of the older elasticity of this Participle are to be seen in Plautine Latin. Thus operatus has no Past signification, but is like feriatus in Mil. 7 “quia se iam pridem feriatam gestitem”, or ingeniatus in Mil. 731 “qui lepide ingeniatus esset” (cf. tacitus, maestus, iratus1). Again it takes occasionally Active (or Neuter) signification and plays the part of a Past Participle Active, e.g. iuratus (cf. Turpilius 33 “A. iurasti? B. non sum iurata”; cf. Curc. 458), pransus, potus, etc., Men. 437 “ante solem occasum”, Pseud. 996 “novi, notis (= eis qui noverunt) praedicas”. A Present Participle Active seems to play this part in Poen. 653 “adiit ad nos extemplo exiens” ‘immediately after disembarking.’ Noteworthy also is the use of the Neuter pensum as a Noun in Truc. 765 (where the despairing lover declares his indifference to dress) “nec mi adeost tantillum pensi iam quos capiam calceos”. Also the curious phrase in Men. 452 “quî homines occupatos occupat (= reddit).”
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