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Concessive.

(Kriege: de enuntiatis concessivis apud Plautum et Terentium. Halle, 1884.)

Plautine Latin is far removed from classical Latin in its treatment of Concessive Sentences. The usual Conjunctions are etsi and quamquam, and both retain their literal sense ‘even if,’ ‘howsoever,’ so that the Indicative is normally used.

Si ‘if’ acquires a Concessive sense from the context in lines like

and the choice of the Subjunctive or Indicative follows the usage of Conditional si (see 10 below). This Concessive sense is strengthened by the addition of et ‘even,’ e.g.

In these lines the construction of et si with vetet Subjunctive, servaveris Future Perfect is naturally the same as that of the preceding si (with vetet Subjunctive, peccasso ‘Future Perfect’). The Conjunction etsi, hardly to be distinguished from et si in Plautus, normally takes Indicative in Plautus (always in Terence), because the thing is normally spoken of as an actual fact, e.g.

Indeed etsi often has the sense of Greek καίτοι, e.g. Capt. 744vale atque salve; etsi aliter ut dicam meres” (the speaker corrects himself). Etiamsi (Epid. 518?) is rare.

Tametsi similarly is normally found with Indicative, since an express fact is normally stated, e.g. Capt. 321ne patri, tametsi unicus sum, decere videatur magis” ‘in spite of the fact that I am his only son.’ The Subjunctive in Trin. 679datur ignis, tametsi ab inimico petas” is the Subjunctive of the Indefinite 2 Pers. Singular (cf. V. 31). The Indicative too is found in all the occurrences of tamenetsi, which should be written tamen etsi, e.g.

On si maxume, see 2 s.v.

Quamquam, a double quam with the same generalized sense (see above, IV. 4) as double ut (e.g. Amph. 1100gaudeo, utut me erga meritast” ‘howsoever she has deserved’), e.g. Truc. 923quamquam es bella, malo tu tuo (sc. es)”, naturally takes the Indicative, since it is a fact which is stated. Sometimes it has the sense of Greek καίτοι (not in Terence), e.g. Capt. 272quamquam non multum fuit molesta servitus”. It never appears without a finite Verb. (in Pseud. 1049 read homo's).

Quamvis, i.e. quam vis ‘as you wish,’ in its literal sense (the sense of classical Latin quantumvis) is very frequent. It is only used with Adjective or Adverb, e.g.

We find quam velis (cf. V. 26 on volo and velim) in Pseud. 1175quam velis pernix homost”, for which was substituted in a later version quamvis pernix hic est homo. It can hardly be said to have the sense of ‘although’ in Plautus, unless possibly in the punning misapprehension of Trin. 554A. quamvis malam (i.e. quam malam vis) rem quaeras, illic reperias. B. at tu hercle et illi et alibi” (scil. malam rem = malum ‘trouble,’ ‘punishment’); hardly in Bacch. 82locus hic apud nos, quamvis subito (= quam subito vis) venias, semper liber est.” The word does not appear to be ever used by Terence.

Licet comes near (but only near) to the sense of ‘although’ in Asin. 718licet laudem Fortunam, tamen ut ne Salutem culpem.Quamlibet is not found in Plautus or Terence.

Like the Conditional Conjunction si, the Temporal Conjunction quom sometimes acquires from the context a Concessive sense, e.g. Aul. 113nam nunc, quom celo sedulo omnes ne sciant, omnes videntur scire”. The Indicative is normally found with this concessive quom in Plautus, but sometimes (and in Terence normally) the Subjunctive, e.g.

For a similar use of quod, see above, 2 s.v.

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