(Kriege: de enuntiatis concessivis apud Plautum et Terentium
. Halle, 1884.)
Plautine Latin is far removed from classical Latin in its treatment of
Concessive Sentences. The usual Conjunctions are etsi
and both retain their literal sense ‘even if,’ ‘howsoever,’ so that
the Indicative is normally used.
‘if’ acquires a Concessive sense from the context in lines like
and the choice of the Subjunctive or Indicative follows the usage of Conditional si
below). This Concessive sense is strengthened by the
addition of et
In these lines the construction of et si
Future Perfect is naturally the same as that of the preceding si
The Conjunction etsi,
hardly to be
distinguished from et si
in Plautus, normally takes Indicative in Plautus
(always in Terence), because the thing is normally spoken of as an actual fact, e.g.
often has the sense of Greek καίτοι,
“vale atque salve; etsi aliter ut dicam meres
” (the speaker corrects
?) is rare.
similarly is normally found with Indicative, since an express
fact is normally stated, e.g. Capt. 321
“ne patri, tametsi unicus sum,
decere videatur magis
” ‘in spite of the fact that I am his only son.’
The Subjunctive in Trin. 679
“datur ignis, tametsi ab inimico petas
” is the
Subjunctive of the Indefinite 2 Pers. Singular (cf. V. 31
). The Indicative too is
found in all the occurrences of tamenetsi,
which should be written
On si maxume,
a double quam
with the same generalized sense (see
above, IV. 4
) as double ut
(e.g. Amph. 1100
“gaudeo, utut me erga
” ‘howsoever she has deserved’), e.g. Truc. 923
es bella, malo tu tuo (sc. es)
”, naturally takes the Indicative, since it is a
fact which is stated. Sometimes it has the sense of Greek καίτοι
(not in Terence), e.g. Capt. 272
“quamquam non multum fuit molesta
”. It never appears without a finite Verb. (in Pseud. 1049
i.e. quam vis
‘as you wish,’ in its literal sense (the
sense of classical Latin quantumvis
) is very frequent. It is only used
with Adjective or Adverb, e.g.
We find quam velis
(cf. V. 26
in Pseud. 1175
“quam velis pernix homost
”, for which was substituted
in a later version quamvis pernix hic est homo.
It can hardly be
said to have the sense of ‘although’ in Plautus, unless possibly in
the punning misapprehension of Trin. 554
“A. quamvis malam (i.e.
quam malam vis) rem quaeras, illic reperias. B. at tu hercle et illi
” (scil. malam rem = malum
‘trouble,’ ‘punishment’); hardly
in Bacch. 82
“locus hic apud nos, quamvis subito (= quam subito
vis) venias, semper liber est.
” The word does not appear to be ever used by Terence.
comes near (but only near) to the sense of ‘although’ in
“licet laudem Fortunam, tamen ut ne Salutem culpem.
is not found in Plautus or Terence.
Like the Conditional Conjunction si,
the Temporal Conjunction
sometimes acquires from the context a Concessive sense, e.g.
“nam nunc, quom celo sedulo omnes ne sciant, omnes
”. The Indicative is normally found with this concessive
in Plautus, but sometimes (and in Terence normally) the Subjunctive, e.g.
For a similar use of quod,
see above, 2