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(H. Elmer: a Discussion of the Latin Prohibitive, based upon a complete collection of the instances from the earliest times to the end of the Augustan period. Reprinted from the American Journal of Philology, vol. XV., Parts ii and iii. Ithaca, N.Y., 1894; read with it Seyffert's review in Bursian's Jahresbericht, 1895, p. 338). The use of the Subjunctive as an Imperative has been already mentioned (V. 25). In Old Latin a Prohibition is as often expressed by ne with Subjunctive (Pres more often than Perfect) as by ne with Imper. e.g. ne me moneas or ne me mone. It is often difficult to distinguish between ne, the Prohibitive, and ne, the Final Conjunction, in lines like Whether it is possible to detect a different nuance of meaning in ne- Prohibitions with Present Subjunctive and with Perfect Subjunctive is matter of controversy. We find the latter Tense often with other than Prohibitive ne, e.g. Bacch. 37pol magis metuo ne defuerit mihi in monendo oratio”, and the same interchange of Tenses with cave, e.g. Epid. 437cave praeterbitas ullas aedesincertus tuom cave ad me rettuleris pedem”, where a difference of nuance is very unlikely.

As a circumlocution, cave plays the same part in early Latin as noli (e.g. Capt. 840) in classical Latin It normally takes the Tense in -sim (S.-Aorist Optative) or the Perfect Subjunctive, e.g. cave faxis, cave feceris, and is not often found with the Present Subjunctive, except when cave ne is used or some other part of caveo than the Imper. (For details, see Studemund in Versammlung zu Karlsruhe, p. 54.) On Old Latin ne . . neve for classical Latin neve . . neve and on neque . . neque in the same function, see above, 2 s.vv.

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