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ἐπί : upon, on.—I. adv., thereon, on top, thereby, besides; esp. ἔπι = ἔπεστι or ἔπεισι, οὔ τοι ἔπι δϝέος, ‘thou hast nought to fear,’ Il. 1.515, Od. 8.563. Here belong all examples of ‘tmesis,’ ἐπὶ δ᾽ αἴγειον κνῆ τυ_ρόν, grated ‘on,’ Il. 11.639, 640; the appropriate case of a subst. may specify the relation of the adv., ἐπὶ κνέφας ἤλυθε γαῖαν, darkness came ‘on’—over the earth, Il. 24.351 .—κρἔ ἔδων καὶ ἐπ᾽ ἄκρητον γάλα πι?νων, ‘on top’ of the meat, ‘besides,’ Od. 9.297 ; πρὸ μέν τ᾽ ἄλλ̓, αὐτὰρ ἐπ̓ ἄλλα, some before, some ‘after,’ Il. 13.799 ; ἐπὶ σκέπας ἦν ἀνέμοιο, ‘withal,’ Od. 5.443.—II. prep., (1) w. gen., local, of position, on, at, or direction, towards, for; and sometimes temporal; freq. ἐφ᾽ ἵππων, ἐπὶ νηῶν; ἐπ̓ ἀγροῦ, ‘in the country,’ ‘at the farm,’ Od. 1.190 ; ἐπ᾽ ὄγμου, ‘at the swath,’ Il. 18.557 ; σι_γῇ ἐφ᾽ υ?μείων, ‘by yourselves,’ Il. 7.195 ; ἐπὶ παιδὸς ἕπεσθαι, ‘along with,’ Od. 1.278; direction, νήσου ἔπι Ψυρίης, make ‘for’ the island, Od. 3.171, Il. 5.700; time, ἐπ᾽ εἰρήνης, ἐπὶ προτέρων ἀνθρώπων, ‘in the time of,’ Il. 2.797, Il. 5.637.—(2) w. dat., of place, time, purpose, condition; νέμεσθαι ἐπὶ κρήνῃ, ‘at’ the spring, Od. 13.408 ; νῆα ἐπ᾽ ἠπείροιο ἔρυσσαν | ὑψοῦ ἐπὶ ψαμαθοῖς, high ‘upon the sand,’ Il. 1.486 ; ἐπὶ Πατρόκλῳ τέτατο ὑσμι?νη, ‘over Patroclus,’ Il. 17.543; so of charge or mastery, ποιμαίνειν ἐπ᾽ ὄεσσι, Il. 6.25; υἱὸν ἐπὶ κτεάτεσσι λιπέσθαι, ‘in charge of,’ ‘as master of,’ Il. 5.154 ; ἐπὶ ἴστορι πεῖρας ἑλέσθαι, ‘by,’ i. e. before a judge, Il. 18.501; freq. of hostile direction, ἧκε δ᾽ ἐπ̓ Ἀργείοισι βέλος, ‘at the Greeks,’ Il. 1.382; addition, ὄγχνη ἐπ᾽ ὄγχνῃ, ‘pear upon pear,’ Od. 7.120, 216; of time, ἐπὶ νυκτί, ‘in the night,’ Il. 8.529 ; ἐπ᾽ ἤματι, ‘a day long,’ Il. 19.229; ‘day by day,’ Od. 12.105 ; ἐπ᾽ ἤματι τῷδε, ‘on this day,’ Il. 13.234; cause or purpose, γαστέρας ἐπὶ δόρπῳ κατθέμεθα, ‘for supper,’ Od. 18.44 ; ἐπ᾽ ἀρωγῇ, Il. 23.574; ἐπὶ ῥηθέντι δικαίῳ, ‘at a just remark,’ Od. 18.414; condition or price, μισθῷ ἔπι ῥητῷ, Il. 21.445, Κ 304, Il. 9.602.—(3) w. acc., local, direction to or at (hostile), or extension, over; of purpose, for; and of time in extension, for, up to; ἕζεσθαι ἐπ᾽ ἐρετμά, ‘take seats at the oars,’ Od. 12.171 ; ἐπὶ ἔργα τρέπεσθαι, ‘to work,’ Il. 3.422 ; ὄρνυσθαι ἐπί τινα, ‘against,’ Il. 5.590 ; ἐπ᾽ ἐννέα κεῖτο πέλεθρα, ‘extending over,’ Od. 11.577 ; πάντας ἐπ᾽ ἀνθρώπους ἐκέκαστο, ‘the world over,’ Il. 24.535; so ἐπὶ γαῖαν, ἐπὶ πόντον; purpose, ἀναστῆναι ἐπὶ δόρπον, Il. 12.439; time, παννύχιον εὑδεῖν καὶ ἐπ᾽ ἠῶ καὶ μέσον ἦμαρ, Od. 7.288; so ἐπὶ χρόνον, ‘for a time;’ ἐπὶ δϝηρόν, ‘for long.’
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