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κατά , before γ sometimes κάγ, before δ κάδ, before π and φ κάπ, before ρ κάρ (and by some written in combination with its case, e. g. καγγόνυ, καδδύναμιν): down.—I. adv., down, utterly (here belong all examples of ‘tmesis’ so-called); κατὰ δάκρυ χέουσα, fig., κατὰ δ᾽ ὅρκια πάτησαν, ‘under foot,’ Il. 4.157 ; κατὰ δ᾽ ἅρματα ἄξω, break ‘to pieces;’ κατὰ ταῦρον ἐδηδώς, having devoured, stronger than ‘eaten,’ through the force of κατά, Il. 17.542; Πηλῆά γ᾽ ὀι?ομαι κατὰ πάμπαν | τεθνάμεν, to be dead and gone, cf. καταθνήσκω, Il. 19.334; the appropriate case of a subst. may specify the relation of the adv., κατὰ δὲ νότιος ῥέεν ἱδρὼς | ὤμων καὶ κεφαλῆς (local gen.), Il. 11.811.—II. prep., (a) w. gen., down, down from, down over, κατ᾽ οὐρανοῦ εἰλήλουθεν, Od. 7.199; κατ̓ ὀφθαλμοῦ κέχυτ̓ ἀχλυ?ς, Il. 5.696; ἀμβροσίην καὶ νέκταρ ἐρυθρὸν | στάξε κατὰ ῥι_νῶν, ‘down through,’ ‘in through,’ Il. 19.39 ; κατ᾽ ἄκρης, ‘from top to bottom,’ ‘utterly.’—(b) w. acc., down, down through, down into, κατὰ τεῖχος ἔβησαν, Il. 13.737; of motion not so vaguely as ἀνά, ‘up and down,’ but usually rather with reference to some definite end or purpose, δοιὼ δὲ κυβιστητῆρε κατ᾽ αὐτοὺς.. ἐδι?νευον κατὰ μέσσους, ‘among them.. down the centre,’ Od. 4.18 ; ναίειν κατὰ πόλιν, in particular places throughout the city, Il. 2.130; so, κατὰ γαῖαν, κατὰ πόντον, and simply local, κατὰ στῆθος, in the breast, met., κατὰ θυ_μόν, ‘in the heart;’ transferred from the physical or local sense to other relations, distributive, according to, by, κατὰ φῦλα, κατὰ στίχας, so κατὰ σφέας, ‘by themselves;’ fitness, κατὰ θυ_μόν, according to one's wish; κατὰ κόσμον, κατ᾽ αἶσαν, κρομύοιο λοπὸν κάτα, ‘after the semblance’ of an onion-skin, Od. 19.233; purpose, κατὰ πρῆξιν, ‘on business’; κατὰ δαῖτα, ‘for a banquet,’ Il. 1.424.
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