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Socrates reverenced the gods of the Athenian state, and introduced no new divinities.
πολλάκις ἐθαύμασα: with these words Isocrates begins his Panegyricus, and Theophrastus his Characteres. τίσι ποτε: by what possible. The use of τίς, ποῖος, πόσος, πῶς, etc., makes the indirect question more vivid and forcible. G. 1012; H. 1011. So ποίῳ ποτέ in 2. For a similar intensive use of ποτέ (Lat. tandem) with questions, cf. τί ποτε λέγει ὁ θεός Plato Apol. 21B, “τίπτ᾽ [ τί ποτε ] εἰλήλουθας” Hom. A 202. Xenophon surely was not unacquainted with the contents of the judicial indictment against Socrates; but he regarded its grounds as wholly unsatisfactory, and wondered what arguments could have persuaded the judges to render such a verdict. At the time of the trial (399 B.C.), Xenophon was not in Athens, and could only have heard from others in regard to the speeches. Ἀθηναίους: here (as Ἀθηναῖοι in 20) refers immediately to the judges. So, in addressing the court, ὦ ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι was allowable, instead of ὦ ἄνδρες δικασταί, since every Athenian citizen over thirty years of age could become a judge. The actual number of judges sitting on each case was very large, usually 501, which must have made the court resemble somewhat a New England town meeting. In the popular jury court of the Heliaea, the term δικαστής really is equivalent to ‘judge-juryman.’ (See Schömann, Antiq. of Greece, Eng. transl., i. 474 ff.; Gow, Companion to School Classics, p. 126.) Both here, however, and in 20, δικαστής is purposely avoided, to indicate that the guilt of condemning Socrates affected the whole Athenian state. ἔπεισαν, ὡς εἴη: in 20, ἐπείσθησαν with acc. and infinitive. οἱ γραψάμενοι: the accusers, viz. Meletus, Anytus, and Lycon (Introd. § 5). τῇ πόλει: dat. of relation or interest. G. 1172; H. 771. Cf. i.2.62, 63. μέν: not followed by a correlative δέ. A contrast is not expressed, though perhaps suggested. “How unfounded, however, the accusation was will appear hereafter.” γραφή: the term for a public indictment. See Gow, p. 127. κατ᾽ αὐτοῦ: without repetition of the art. (after γραφή), as often after a noun expressing action. Cf. ἦν γὰρ ἐφ᾽ ἑνὸς ἡ κατάβασις ἐκ τοῦ χωρίου An. v.2.6 τὶς: after τοιάδε, shows that the author is more concerned with the substance than with the exact words. The indictment is probably, however, quoted nearly verbatim. We find it somewhat differently given by Plato, Apol. 24B, where the two principal counts stand in the reverse order. There, too, an ἔχει δέ πως ὧδε precedes. οὓς ... νομίζων: the rel. clause οὓς ... νομίζει has the force of an attrib. adjective. θεούς is obj. of νομίζων, recognizing. For the circumstantial participle of means or manner, see G. 1563, 3; H. 969 a. ἀδικεῖ δὲ καί: the first ἀδικεῖ was not followed by μέν, an omission which occurs chiefly when, as here, δὲ καί follows. Cf. i.2.22; ii. 6. 23; An. iii.1.23
2-9. Socrates not only sacrificed to the gods, but also availed himself of divination, as is proved by his belief in the δαιμόνιον. But he thought that we should not question the gods on matters which human understanding is capable of ascertaining without divine aid. 2. πρῶτον μὲν οὖν: “as to the first charge, then.” The δέ corresponding to μέν is at the beginning of chapter 2. θύων: for the participle in indirect discourse with δῆλος and φανερός εἰμι, see G. 1589; H. 981. οἴκοι: at home, i.e. in the αὐλή, the interior court of the dwelling, where stood the altar of Ζεὺς Ἑρκεῖος. See Seyffert, Dict. Class. Antiq. p. 704. For the accent of οἴκοι, see G. 113; H. 102 b. τῶν κοινῶν βωμῶν: these stood in the open spaces of the city, so that the worshipers were ‘seen of men.’ οὐκ ἀφανής: ‘litotes.’ διετεθρύλητο γάρ: for it was commonly reported (διά indicating the spread of the report) that Socrates believed in his δαιμόνιον, and hence in divination. The parenthetical sentences from ὅθεν δή to γὰρ ἔφη in 4 carry this thought farther. δαιμόνιον: an adj. used as a noun, like τὸ θεῖον. Cf. “divinum quiddam, quod daemonium appellat (Socrates)” Cic. de Div. i. 54. See Introd. §27 ff. ὅθεν δὴ καὶ μάλιστα: for which very reason especially. Other utterances of Socrates were also used by his opponents as evidence that he introduced καινὰ δαιμόνια. Cf. κατηγόρουν αὐτοῦ, ὡς ὅτι καινὰ δαιμόνια εἰσφέρει τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις, λέγων δεῖν σέβειν ὄρνεα καὶ κύνας καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα Isoc. xi (First Hypothesis), edit. Blass.
τῶν ἄλλων: gen. of the person, although the real comparison is between things. Cf. πυραμίδα ἀπελίπετο πολλὸν ἐλάσσω τοῦ πατρός Hdt. ii. 134. See G. 1178; H. 773 b. μαντικήν (i.e. τὴν μαντικὴν τέχνην): divination in general, followed by the four varieties οἰωνοῖς, φήμαις, συμβόλοις, θυσίαις. In the case of birds, their flight and cries were observed (Lat. augurium); φῆμαι were sayings of men; σύμβολα (συμβάλλω) were originally coincidences, or meetings of men, then, generally, natural phenomena, or other occurrences which may serve as omina; θυσίαις refers to the inspection of the viscera of victims sacrificed. Cf. Theophrastus περὶ δεισιδαιμονίας; Gardner and Jevons, Manual of Greek Antiq., p. 256 ff. For the dat. of means with χρῶνται (lit. serve themselves by), see G. 1183; H. 777. οὐ τοὺς ὄρνιθας: not that the birds. τὰ συμφέροντα τοῖς μαντευομένοις: what is of advantage to the persons resorting to divination. διὰ τούτων: through these instrumentalities. The gen. is of means, as in ἔλεγε δἰ ἑρμηνέως, he spoke through an interpreter, An. ii.3.17 G. 1206, 1; H. 795, 1. αὐτά: i.e. τὰ συμφέροντα.
οἱ πλεῖστοι: the great majority. φασίν: say, i.e. they so express themselves, and yet believe, like Socrates, that the omens come from the gods. τὸ δαιμόνιον σημαίνειν: the thought is, that Socrates said that he obeyed his δαιμόνιον, and thus did not really differ from the others, who obeyed the gods while saying that they were following the signs. To him, the inner voice was a sign from the gods. συνόντων: not μαθητῶν, since Socrates did not have pupils, in the ordinary sense of the term; he did not teach for money, like the Sophists. Both Xenophon and Plato sedulously avoid the use of the term μαθηταί for the followers of Socrates, employing, in its stead, συνόντες, συνουσιασταί, συνδιατρίβοντες, etc. Cf. i.2.3; i. 6.1; Plato Apol. 33A. τὰ μὲν ποιεῖν, τὰ δὲ μὴ ποιεῖν: acc. to Plato (Apol. 31D; Theag. 128 D), the δαιμόνιον confined its activity to restraining, and did not encourage or urge on. The apparent difference between this statement and that of Xenophon may be explained by assuming that to Socrates the silence of the divine monitor implied assent and even encouragement. Cf. Plato Apol. 40A ff. ὡς προσημαίνοντος: i.e. λέγων τὸ δαιμόνιον προσημαίνειν. The gen. or acc. abs. of a participle with ὡς or ὥσπερ assigns a reason on the part of the speaking or acting subject, without implying the truth or falsity of the statement expressed by the participle. Both cases (gen. and acc.) occur near each other in i. 6. 5. See G. 1574, 1593; H. 978. τοῖς πειθομένοις αὐτῷ: those who followed his counsel. μετέμελε: translate as if personal, “had cause for regret.”
ὁμολογήσειεν: for the potential opt., see G. 1327 ff; H. 872. αὐτόν: i.e. Socrates. ἠλίθιον μήτ᾽ ἀλαζόνα: a fool nor an impostor. ἐδόκει δ᾽ ἄν, εἰ ἐφαίνετο: impf., instead of aor., denoting cond. unfulfilled in past time, the verbs expressing continued acts. So οὐκ ἂν προέλεγεν, εἰ μὴ ἐπίστευεν just below. See GMT. 410; H. 895 a. ἀμφότερα ταῦτα: i.e. ἠλίθιος καὶ ἀλαζών. For the gender of the pred. adj., see H. 617. Cf. ὁπότε (ἀδελφὸς) πᾶν τὸ ἐναντιώτατον εἴη ii. 3. 5. ὡς: see on 4. ψευδόμενος: for the supplementary participle, see G. 1588; H. 981. ταῦτα: in these matters. πιστεύων δέ: equiv. to εἰ ἐπίστευε, cond. assumed as real, and itself a logical conclusion from the preceding sentence. For the circumstantial participle of cond., see G. 1563, 5; H. 969 d. οὐκ εἶναι θεοὺς ἐνόμιζεν: this was the meaning of the charge quoted in 1, οὓς μὲν ἡ πόλις νομίζει θεοὺς οὐ νομίζων.
ἀλλὰ μήν: but further, marks a transition to a new phase of the discussion. Xenophon makes frequent use of this phrase. Cf. i.1.10, iv. 5. 10. ἐπιτηδείους: another substitute for ‘disciples’ (μαθηταί). See on συνόντων in 4. γάρ: after τάδε (in preceding clause) has an introductory force. Cf. ἐκ τῶνδε σκέψαι: εἰ γὰρ κτλ. ii. 6. 38. τὰ ἀναγκαῖα: the necessary duties of life, the result of which can be readily foreseen. Cf. ii.1.6, iv. 5. 9. καί (before πράττειν): here equiv. to οὕτω. Cf. ὡς δέ οἱ ταῦτα ἔδοξε, καὶ ἐποίεε Hdt. i. 79. In comparisons, καί often stands in both clauses. H. 1042. Cf. i.6.3. ὡς νομίζοιεν: for the cond. rel. corresponding to past general cond., see G. 1431, 2; H. 914 B (2). ἂν πραχθῆναι: represents the potential opt. of direct discourse. G. 1522, 1328; H. 946. ἀδήλων (sc. ὄντων) ὅπως ἀποβήσοιτο: “whose result was doubtful.” ἀποβήσοιτο is fut. opt. (never used with ἄν) in indirect question. GMT. 129; H. 932, 2. The adv. ὅπως should not be confounded with the conj. ὅπως. See GMT. 376. μαντευσομένους πέμπειν: to send and consult the oracles. Xenophon himself received this advice from Socrates (An. iii.1.5). Cf. εἴγε μὴν ταῦτα δόξειεν ὑμῖν πράττειν, συμβουλεύσαιμ᾽ ἂν ἔγωγε πέμψαντας καὶ εἰς Δωδώνην καὶ εἰς Δελφοὺς ἐπερέσθαι (to question) τοὺς θεούς Vect. vi. 2; Hdt. i. 46, 85. For the fut. participle of purpose, see G. 1563, 4; H. 969 c. εἰ ποιητέα (sc. εἴη): whether they should be done. For the verbal in -τέος, see G. 1595; H. 989: and for the opt. in indirect question, see on ἀποβήσοιτο above.
καί: introduces an illustration, “so, for example.” Cf. καὶ οἱ μοιχοί ii. 1. 5. τοὺς μέλλοντας καλῶς οἰκήσειν: qui vellent bene administrare. Cf. εὖ οἰκοῦσι i. 2. 64, where the phrase is used in a pass. sense, “are well managed.” For the periphrastic fut. inf. (with μέλλω), see G. 1254; H. 846. οἴκους τε καὶ πόλεις: “not only domestic, but also public affairs.” προσδεῖσθαι: needed in addition to their human abilities and attainments. μὲν γάρ: for while, contrasted with τὰ δὲ μέγιστα below. τεκτονικόν: for the formation and accent of denominative adjs. in -ικός, see G. 851; H. 565. τῶν τοιούτων ἔργων ἐξεταστικόν: a competent critic of such works. λογιστικόν: lit. skilled in calculation, an accountant. πάντα τὰ τοιαῦτα: sums up the preceding items, their common inf. γενέσθαι being understood with each. μαθήματα: objects of study, pred. (like αἱρετά) to τὰ τοιαῦτα. καὶ ἀνθρώπου γνώμῃ αἱρετά: and attainable by human understanding. For the verbal in -τός, see G. 776, 2; H. 475.
τὰ δὲ μέγιστα τῶν ἐν τούτοις: “but the point of greatest importance in these matters” (lit. of the things in these), i.e. the result in each case. καταλείπεσθαι: reserve. εἶναι: for the inf. by assimilation in indirect discourse, see G. 1524; H. 947. καλῶς (in both clauses): well. φυτευσαμένῳ: for denominative verbs, see G. 861; H. 570 ff. οἰκίαν οἰκοδομησαμένῳ: the apparent redundancy of “housebuilding a house” is explained by the fact that οἰκοδομέω (like Lat. aedificare) early lost its special meaning, and was used with τεῖχος, γέφυρα, ναῦς, etc. Cf. οἰνοχόει γλυκὺ νέκταρ Hom. A 598. εἰ ἀνιάσεται: after verbs or phrases expressing doubt or ignorance, εἰ should be translated whether, or whether not, acc. to the necessities of the Eng. idiom. For the fut. ind. with εἰ after expressions of uncertainty, see Kr. Spr. 65. 1. 8. στερήσεται (the usual form, instead of στερηθήσεται): passive, as is also ἀνιάσεται. G. 1248; H. 496, and a.
μηδέν: for the occasional use of μή with the inf. after verbs which regularly take οὐ, see GMT. 685 fin. δαιμόνιον: adj., “dependent on divine influence.” τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης γνώμης: within the province of human understanding. For the pred. gen., see G. 1094, 1; H. 732 a. δαιμονᾶν: equivalent to ὑπὸ δαίμονος κατέχεσθαι. Notice the word-play (‘paronomasia’) between δαιμόνιον and δαιμονᾶν. The latter gains further emphasis by its repetition at the beginning of the next sentence. μαντευομένους: sc. περὶ τούτων. ἔδωκαν: for the form, see G. 670; H. 432. μαθοῦσι: by learning, “by experience.” The participle is attracted to the case of ἀνθρώποις. G. 928, 1; H. 941. οἷον εἰ: as if for example. κρεῖττον: sc. εἴη. μή: with a participle, equivalent to a cond. rel. clause. G. 1612; H. 1025. ἐπὶ τὴν ϝαῦν: upon his ship, with reference to the implied subj. of λαβεῖν. For the art. as possessive, see G. 949; H. 658. ἢ ἃ ἔξεστιν εἰδέναι: or in regard to matters which we may determine. στήσαντας: by weighing. For the circumstantial participle of means, see G. 1563, 3; H. 969 a.—τοὺς τὰ τοιαῦτα κτλ.: sums up briefly (like πάντα τὰ τοιαῦτα in 7) what precedes; hence the ‘asyndeton.’ Cf. ii.1.33; iv. 3. 14. μαθόντας: see on μαθοῦσι above. οἷς ἂν ὦσιν: cond. rel. clause. G. 1431, 1; H. 914 B (1). ἵλεῳ: for the ‘Attic’ second decl., see G. 196; H. 227.
10-20. While Socrates always lived in the public view, and spoke and taught openly in the city, yet no one ever heard him utter an impiety; for he busied himself, not, like other philosophers, with speculations concerning the universe, but with the problems of making men better and more self-controlled. How faithful he could be to his principles was amply shown at the trial of the nine generals. 10. ἀλλὰ μὴν: see on 6. ἀεὶ μέν: contrasted with οὐδεὶς δὲ πώποτε in 11. ἐν τῷ φανερῷ: cf. Eng. ‘in the open.’ πρωΐ: the day was divided into several parts (ὧραι),— πρωΐ or ὄρθρος, morning; πλήθουσα ἀγορά, 9-12 A.M.; μεσημβρία, noon; δείλη, afternoon; and ἑσπέρα, evening. περιπάτους: colonnades or halls. Aristotle and his followers, who carried on discussions while walking in the paths and colonnades of the Lyceum, were called Peripatetics. ἀγορᾶς: for the gen. of time, see G. 1136; H. 759. πλείστοις: very many. μέλλοι: opt. in cond. rel. clause, denoting repeated action in past time. See on ὡς νομίζοιεν 6. ὡς τὸ πολύ: for the most part.
οὐδεὶς δὲ πώποτε Σωκράτους κτλ.: but no one ever saw Socrates do, or heard him say, anything profane or impious. Σωκράτους is gen. with verbs of perception. G. 1102; H. 742. The two participles πράττοντος and λέγοντος are supplementary. G. 1582; H. 982. οὐδὲ γάρ: the neg. extends also to σκοπῶν. τῶν πάντων: the universe. ᾗπερ: ea quidem ratione, qua. To serve ethical or teleological purposes, Socrates brought the consideration of the universe into his discussions (cf. i. 4, iv. 3). Xenophon is careful, however, to say that he did not discourse thereon after the manner of natural philosophers (in order to preclude the assumption that Socrates, by such discussions, laid himself open to the charge of ἀσέβεια, as did other philosophers, e.g., Anaxagoras). Cf. οἱ γὰρ ἀκούοντες ἡγοῦνται τοὺς ταῦτα (viz. τά τε μετέωρα [celestial phenomena] καὶ τὰ ὑπὸ γῆς) ζητοῦντας οὐδὲ θεοὺς νομίζειν Plato Apol. 18 c. καλούμενος: attrib. participle. G. 1559; H. 965. τῶν σοφιστῶν: here, as in iv. 2. 1, philosophers, without unfavorable added meaning, which σοφιστής did not have before the time of Socrates. For its use in the less favorable sense, see i. 6. 13. The student may consult, on this subject, the histories of philosophy, as Zeller, Schwegler, Ueberweg, etc.; and, especially, Grote's famous discussion (Hist. of Greece, c. lxvii). κόσμος: the world of order, corresponds exactly to the Lat. mundus, and is said to have been first employed in this sense by Pythagoras (about 500 B.C.). ἔφυ: the origin of the world was a favorite subject of speculation with the earliest Greek philosophers. ‘Ay, sir, the world is in its dotage; and yet the cosmogony, or creation of the world, has puzzled philosophers of all ages. What a medley of opinions have they not broached upon the creation of the world!’ Goldsmith, Vicar of Wakefield, c. 14. τίσιν ἀνάγκαις: by what eternal laws. φροντίζοντας τὰ τοιαῦτα: pondering such subjects. τοιαῦτα replaces a cognate acc. implied in the verb. G. 1054; H. 716 and b. Cf. μέγιστον and ταὐτά 13, and τὰ μετέωρα φροντιστής Plato Apol. 18B. So Aristophanes (Clouds 94) calls Socrates's house a φροντιστήριον, and (ibid. 102) the philosophers generally μεριμνοφροντισταί ponderers of trifles.
πρῶτον μέν: corresponds to ἐσκόπει δέ in 15. αὐτῶν ἐσκόπει πότερα: he would raise the question in regard to them, whether. αὐτῶν (regarded as attrib. gen.) may be referred to the general rule given in G. 1084; H. 728, the other subst. in this case being the interr. sent. πότερα κτλ. Cf. ἐνενόησε δὲ αὐτῶν καὶ ὡς ἐπηρώτων ἀλλήλους τοιαῦτα Cyr. v. 2. 18. ποτέ: adds intensity to the question, as in 1 and 2. Cf. πότερά ποτε πόλεμος, ἢ εἰρήνη εἴη Hell. v.4.16 τἀνθρώπινα, ἀνθρώπεια: without perceptible difference in meaning. Cf. ἀνθρωπίνοις πράγμασι iv. 1. 2, with ἀνθρώπεια πράγματα iv. 6. 5. τὸ φροντίζειν: for the articular inf., see G. 1546; H. 959. παρέντες (παρίημι): in ignoring.
ἐθαύμαζε εἰ: the prot. with εἰ, after verbs expressing emotion in past time, is equivalent to a causal clause, and might take the optative. GMT. 697; H. 926. εἰ μή is equivalent to ὅτι οὐ. ἐστίν, ἐστίν: such repetitions are frequent in Xenophon. So δοκεῖν εἶναι, εἶναι δοκεῖν in 14. τοὺς μέγιστον φρονοῦντας: those who most pride themselves. μέγιστον, instead of μέγιστα, on the analogy of μέγα φρονεῖν. οὐ ταὐτὰ δοξάζειν: do not hold the same opinions. For the inf. in subord. clause of indirect discourse, see on εἶναι in 8. ἀλλήλοις: for the abridged expression, see on τῶν ἄλλων 3. τοῖς μαινομένοις: madmen, as a class. For the generic use of the art., see G. 950; H. 659. διακεῖσθαι πρὸς ἀλλήλους: are affected, in comparison with one another.
τῶν τε γὰρ μαινομένων: for, as among madmen (part. gen.), followed by τῶν τε μεριμνώντων as a parallel. Notice the ‘concinnity’ of this passage; both the μαινόμενοι and the μεριμνῶντες are divided into three groups, each containing two contrasts. δεδιέναι: see on δοξάζειν in 13. τὰ μὴ φοβερά: μή instead of οὐ, since τὰ φοβερά is indefinite. G. 1613; H. 1026. Distinguish between δεδιέναι and φοβεῖσθαι. ὁτιοῦν: -οῦν, like Lat. -cunque, is equivalent to Eng. ‘-ever,’ ‘-soever.’ G. 432; H. 285. ἐξιτητέον: equivalent to ἐξιτέον. G. 808; H. 477. For the impers. const. of the verbal, see G. 1597; H. 990. τὰ τυχόντα: chanced on, hence “common.” The whole phrase is nearly equivalent to Eng. ‘stocks and stones,’ and seems to indicate a sort of fetichism. Breitenbach understands it of grotesque stone or wooden images, and cites τὰ δὲ ἔτι παλαίτερα (in still more remote times) καὶ τοῖς πᾶσιν Ἕλλησι τιμὰς θεῶν (divine honors) ἀντὶ ἀγαλμάτων (statues) εἶχον ἀργοὶ (undressed) λίθοι Paus. vii. 22. 3. τὸ ὄν: all existence, “the universe,” to be supplied also as subj. for ἄπειρα (εἶναι) τὸ πλῆθος. That the universe was a unit (ἓν μόνον) was the doctrine of the Eleatic philosophers, and esp. of Xenophanes (about 540 B.C.), the founder of that school. Plato discusses this doctrine in the Parmenides. The contrary view (ἄπειρα τὸ πλῆθος) was held by the Atomists, esp. Leucippus (about 500 B.C.) and his pupil Democrĭtus, both of Abdēra in Thrace. ἄν ποτε κινηθῆναι: equivalent to ἄν ποτε κινηθείη in direct discourse. G. 1494; H. 964. The doctrine was that of the Eleatic Zeno (about 460 B.C.): ‘Motion is impossible,’ said he, ‘for it must take place either where a body is, or where it is not; it cannot move where it is, and it certainly cannot where it is not.’ On the other hand, the ‘perpetual flux’ (ἀεὶ κινεῖσθαι) was maintained by Heraclītus of Ephesus (about 500 B.C.). For an account of these various schools, see Schwegler's, Zeller's, or Ueberweg's Hist. of Philosophy, or Marshall's Hist. of Greek Philosophy.
ἆρα: whether, introducing νομίζουσιν, and followed by ἢ ἐλπίζουσιν as the alternative. μάθωσιν, βούλωνται, γνῶσιν: for the cond. rel. subjv., see G. 1434; H. 916. ἀνάγκαις: as in 11. ὕδατα: rains. ὅτου: for the form, see G. 425; H. 280 a. ἧ: qua ratione. The passage suggests a definition of ‘pure’ and ‘applied’ science.
περὶ μὲν οὖν: an extended enumeration of details is often closed, in Greek, with a clause or sent. which sums them all up; and which is commonly introduced by μὲν οὖν or δή. Cf. the beginnings and endings of Xenophon's chapters. αὐτὸς δέ: for the uses of the intensive pron., see G. 989; H. 680.— τί εὐσεβές, τί ἀσεβὲς κτλ.: Socrates sought to define his conceptions by examining opposed qualities, which accordingly are here arranged in pairs until πόλις is reached, when the opposition ceases. Since the question is as to the essential nature of each quality, εὐσεβές and the following adjs. are virtually abstract nouns. G. 933; H. 621 b (Rem.).—ἃ τοὺς εἰδότας κτλ.: quas res qui scirent honestos esse arbitrabatur. To Socrates, the proper study of mankind was man. In his view the expression καλοὺς κἀγαθούς contained the idea of men of culture, viros liberaliter institutos; while ἀνδραποδώδεις servile conveyed the opposite meaning. Other Greeks (than Socrates) often used καλοὶ κἀγαθοί in a political sense, like optimates. ἂν κεκλῆσθαι: equivalent to pf. opt. in direct discourse. See on ἂν κινηθῆναι 14.
ὅσα μὲν οὖν μὴ φανερὸς ἦν κτλ.: the views and conversations of Socrates thus far described could not have been known to everybody, and might easily have remained unknown to the judges. μή is explained by the cond. force of the rel. clause. G. 1610; H. 1021. ὅσα is loosely connected with φανερός and ἐγίγνωσκε, which verb, in the sense of ‘think’ or ‘believe,’ is often employed with περί and the genitive. Cf. i.2.19. For the pers. const. of φανερός, see on i.1.2. ὑπέρ: chosen to avoid a repetition of περί. παραγνῶναι: “went astray in their judgment.” ἐνεθυμήθησαν: with the gen., had regard to; with the acc., more in the sense of ‘ponder.’ For εἰ with the ind. after θαυμαστόν, see on 13 above.
βουλεύσας: senator factus. So ii. 6. 25, where ἄρξας is equivalent to magistratus factus. The aor. denotes the election to the office, the pres. would indicate continuance in it. G. 1260; H. 841. The senate, or council (βουλή), of the Athenians was, under the constitution of Clisthenes, composed of five hundred citizens, fifty being chosen from each of the ten tribes (φυλαί). The whole collective body was divided into ten sections of fifty each, corresponding to the ten tribes. Each of these sections (called πρυτάνεις) in turn served as an executive committee of the βουλή for a period of thirty-five or thirty-six days in ordinary years (thirty-eight or thirtynine days in intercalary years). From the prytany of fifty members one man was chosen by lot each day to act as presiding officer (ἐπιστάτης) in conducting the debate and in putting questions to vote. This latter function, in the present instance, as we see, Socrates refused to exercise. Cf. Plato Apol. 32B, and for an account of the βουλή, its functions, divisions, etc., see Schömann, Antiq. of Greece, i. 371 ff., Gardner and Jevons, Manual of Greek Antiq., 484 ff. τὸν βουλευτικὸν ὅρκον ὀμόσας: having taken the senatorial oath of office. ὅρκον is cognate accusative. ἐν ᾧ ἦν: in which it was stipulated. We might expect ἐν ᾧ ἐστι, but the impf. indicates what obligations Socrates assumed when he took the oath.— παρὰ τοὺς νόμους κτλ.: after the naval victory of the Athenians over the Spartans off the Arginusae islands (406 B.C.), the Athenian generals omitted to take adequate measures to rescue the crews of the disabled vessels, or to gather the dead for burial. A violent storm, arising after the battle, hindered the detachment left behind for that purpose from performing this duty, so sacred in Hellenic eyes. The generals were publicly impeached; and, in spite of Socrates's protest, were condemned to death in one vote (μιᾷ ψήφῳ). This proceeding, and the refusal of a fair trial to the generals, were illegal (παρὰ τοὺς νόμους); for the law expressly provided that when several persons were accused together, a separate trial and vote should be held in the case of each (Hell. i.7.26). The full number of generals was ten: but Conon was blockaded at Mytilene, Archestratus had died, two had fled to avoid trial; and only six were actually executed. Cf. Hell. i. 7, Plato Apol. 32B, and see Grote, Hist. of Greece, c. lxiv. τοὺς ἀμφὶ Θράσυλλον καὶ Ἐρασινίδην: Thrasyllus and Erasinides with their colleagues. For the phrase οἱ ἀμφί τινα, see H. 791, 3. In the nine here spoken of should probably be included Leon, who was superseded in command by Lysias during or just before the battle (Hell. i.5.16, 6. 30, 7. 2); Xenophon must therefore omit his name when speaking (Hell. i.7.34) of sentence being passed on ‘eight.’ οὐκ ἠθέλησεν: refused. The illegal vote must have been taken, after Socrates's refusal, by the ‘prytanes’ directing some other more compliant member of their body to put the question. εὐορκεῖν: to keep his oath. φυλάξασθαι: for differences of meaning in the act. and mid. of certain verbs, see G. 1246; H. 816.
θεούς: “beings who deserve the name of gods.” τοὺς θεούς might be understood to mean the special divinities of the Athenians. ὃν τρόπον: equivalent to τὸν τρόπον, ᾧ. τά τε λεγόμενα κτλ.: cf. ‘For there is not a word in my tongue, but lo, O Lord, thou knowest it altogether,’ ‘thou understandest my thought afar off,’ ‘whither shall I flee from thy presence?’ Psalm cxxxix; and οὗτοι τοίνυν οἱ πάντα μὲν εἰδότες πάντα δὲ δυνάμενοι θεοὶ οὕτω μοι φίλοι εἰσὶν ὥστε διὰ τὸ ἐπιμελεῖσθαί μου οὔποτε λήθω αὐτοὺς οὔτε νυκτὸς οὔθ᾽ ἡμέρας οὔθ̓ ὅποι ἂν ὁρμῶμαι οὔθ̓ ὅ τι ἄν μέλλω πράττειν Sym. iv. 48.
θαυμάζω οὖν κτλ.: repeats, in conclusion, the thought of 1. μὴ σωφρονεῖν: did not hold sound opinions. For μή instead of οὐ, after οἶμαι, cf. i.2.41; after ὑποπτεύειν, An. ii.3.13 GMT. 685 fin.; H. 1024.—τὸν ἀσεβὲς κτλ.: the rest of the section is an expansion of the idea περὶ θεοὺς σωφρονεῖν. Note the significant change in tense from εἰπόντα and πράξαντα to λέγοντα and πράττοντα. οἷα: obj. of λέγων and πράττων. For the cond. force of these participles, see on i.1.5.
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