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1-11. In refutation of the second charge against Socrates, that of corrupting the youth, Xenophon shows that he dissuaded young men from vice and impiety, and led them, by the example of his own life, to revere the laws and abhor violence.
τὸ πεισθῆναι τινας: that any were persuaded (by the arguments of the accusers). For the inf. with τό, as subj., see G. 1555; H. 959. ὅς: a man who. Cf. 64; οἵ i. 4. 11, iii. 5. 15. πρὸς τοῖς εἰρημένοις: sc. in the previous chapter. γαστρός: appetite, as in i. 6. 8, a case of ‘metonymy.’ For the gen. with adjs., see G. 1140; H. 753 b. εἶτα: without δέ, as often after a πρῶτον μέν. So ἔπειτα in i. 4. 11, iv. 2. 31. On Socrates's hardy endurance of heat and cold, and other physical discomforts, cf. i.6.2, Plato Sym. 220 B. καρτερικώτατος: most inured. πρὸς τὸ μετρίων δεῖσθαι: ‘to moderation in his wants.” For the articular inf. as obj. of a prep., see GMT. 800; H. 959. πάνυ μικρά: Socrates estimated his entire estate at five minae, or 500 drachmae (Oec. ii. 3.). Reckoning the drachma at eighteen cents, this would nominally be equivalent to ninety dollars. The purchasing power of money, however, was much greater in ancient than in modern times. The orator Lysias, who was reputed rich, was robbed by the Thirty of the bulk of his fortune, amounting to about 312 minae (Lys. xii. 11.). Boeckh (Staatshaushaltung der Athener 142 ff.) estimates that in the time of Socrates a family of four grown persons could live comfortably on five minae per annum; but as a man's entire estate, this sum would be, indeed, πάνυ μικρόν. On Attic money and its purchasing power, see Gow, Companion to School Classics, p. 88 ff. κεκτημένος: for the circumstantial participle of concession, see G. 1563, 6; H. 969 e, and, for the case of the pred. participle, G. 927; H. 940. Cf. τῷ φανερὸς εἶναι 3. ἔχειν: inf. of result. G. 1450; H. 953.
πῶς οὖν ἂν ἐποίησεν: how then could he have made. For the potential indic., see G. 1338; H. 903. πρὸς τὸ πονεῖν μαλακούς: soft as to toil. ἀλλ᾽ ἔπαυσε τούτων πολλούς: nay, he freed many from these vices. ἂν ἐπιμελῶνται: the use of ἄν for ἐάν is not infrequent in Xenophon. Cf. ἄν τι ὁρῶμεν i. 6. 14. Of the three forms of the cond. conj. with ἄν, it may be remarked that in Attic inscriptions of the classical period (fifth to third century B.C.) ἄν is found but six times, ἐάν being the prevailing form; while ἤν does not occur at all, though frequent in MSS. of literature of the fifth century. Meisterhans, Grammatik der attischen Inschriften, p. 213. For the subjv. in indirect discourse, see G. 1497, 2; H. 932, 933. ἔσεσθαι: fut. inf. after ἐλπίδας, as after a verb of hoping. In direct discourse, we should have ἂν ὑμῶν αὐτῶν ἐπιμελῆσθε, καλοὶ κἀγαθοὶ ἔσεσθε.
καίτοι γε: and yet, indeed, opposed to μέν in the preceding sentence. So γὲ μέντοι in ii. 1. 9. The restrictive force of γέ applies to the whole clause. διδάσκαλος: cf. οὓς οἱ διαβάλλοντές μέ φασιν ἐμοὺς μαθητὰς εἶναι. ἐγὼ δὲ διδάσκαλος μὲν οὐδενὸς πώποτ᾽ ἐγενόμην Plato Apol. 33A. See on i. 1. 4. τούτου: i.e. τοῦ καλοὺς κἀγαθοὺς ἔσεσθαι. ἀλλὰ τῷ φανερὸς εἶναι τοιοῦτος ὤν: but because it was evident that he was such a one. For the articular inf. in the dat., see G. 1547; H. 959, and for ὤν, see on θύων i. 1. 2. For the case of φανερός, see on κεκτημένος 1.— συνδιατρίβοντας: see on διδάσκαλος above. ἑαυτῷ: for the indir. refl., see G. 993; H. 683 a. μιμουμένους: imitando. ἐκεῖνον: refers more distinctly to Socrates, from the point of view of the συνδιατρίβοντες, than αὐτόν would do. ἐκεῖνος is apt to be used when the person has already been mentioned by αὐτοῦ or ἑαυτοῦ. Cf. οὐκ ἔφη ἑαυτοῦ γε ἄρχοντος οὐδένα Ἑλλήνων εις τὸ ἐκείνου δυνατὸν ἀνδραποδισθῆναι Hell. i.6.14
ἀλλὰ μήν: as in i. 1. 6. οὐκ ἐπῄνει: improbabat. Cf. ὅτι Δέξιππον μὲν οὐκ ἐπαινοίη, εἰ ταῦτα πεποιηκὼς εἴη An. vi.6.25—τὸ μὲν οὖν ὑπερεσθίοντα κτλ.: he accordingly disapproved of overeating along with overworking. ὑπερεσθίοντα agrees with the understood subj. (τινά) of ὑπερπονεῖν. The allusion is to the enormous appetites of athletes while in training, a process which must have been more one-sided in its results than our modern training is. In Plato and Euripides the professional athletes are stigmatized as lazy, greedy, and sleepy. In the fourth idyl of Theocritus, the boxer Aegon is described as taking with him twenty sheep for his month of training, and as eating eighty barley-cakes in one day.
ἀλλ᾽ οὐ μὴν θρυπτικὸς ἦν: “but he did not carry care for the body so far as to be effeminate.” ἀλαζονικός: ostentatious, as the professional Sophists often were. See on i. 6. 2. ἀμπεχόνῃ, ὑποδέσει: clothing, footgear. Cf. σοὶ μὲν γὰρ οὐκ ἂν πρέποι τοιούτων ὀνομάτων ἀναπίμπλασθαι (to be soiled by), καλῶς μὲν οὑτωσὶ ἀμπεχομένῳ (clothed), καλῶς δὲ ὑποδεδεμένῳ (shod) Plato Hipp. Maj. 291 A. οὐ μὴν οὐδέ: ac ne quidem. ἐπιθυμιῶν, ἐπιθυμοῦντας: obs. the ‘paronomasia.’ “Not only did Socrates free his associates from the tyranny of other passions (beside avarice) which demand money for their satisfaction, but he gratified the sole desire aroused by himself (i.e. to hear him converse) without putting them to any outlay of money” (Gilbert). τοὺς ἐπιθυμοῦντας ἐπράττετο χρήματα: for the double acc. with ἐπράττετο, see G. 1069; H. 724. This also is aimed at the Sophists, many of whom charged extravagant prices for their instruction. Protagoras is said to have received 100 minae (nominally about $1800, but see on πάνυ μικρά in 1), which must have been out of all proportion to ordinary fees.
ἐλευθερίας ἐπιμελεῖσθαι: he was preserving his independence. ἀνδραποδιστὰς ἑαυτῶν: enslavers of themselves. Cf. i. 5. 6. διαλέγεσθαι: sc. τούτοις. Cf. i.6.5. ἂν λάβοιεν: for ἂν λάβωσι of direct discourse. For the retention of ἄν in rel. and temporal clauses even when the verb has been changed to the opt., see GMT. 702. On this section, cf. Plato Apol. 31B, C, 33 A.
ἐπαγγελλόμενος: professing to teach, a technical expression. πράττοιτο: for the opt., see on i.1.13, and G. 1502, 2 (2), last example but one; H. 932, 2. μή, μὴ ἕξοι: we should expect μὴ οὐχ ἕξοι, acc. to the rule (G. 1364; H. 887), but ‘after μή had come to be felt as a conjunction, and its origin was forgotten, the chief objection to μή, μή was probably in the sound, and we find a few cases of it where the two particles are so far apart that the repetition is not offensive’ GMT. 306 (where the sent. of the text is cited). Another instance of this rare usage is found in Thuc. ii. 13.
ἐπηγγείλατο, ἐπίστευε: note the difference between the aor. and the imperfect. διαφθείροι: potential optative. εἰ μὴ ἄρα: unless, forsooth. Cf. εἰ μὴ ἄρα δεινὸν καλοῦσιν οὗτοι λέγειν τὸν τἀληθῆ λέγοντα unless, forsooth, these gentlemen call him eloquent who speaks the truth Plato Apol. 17B.
ἀλλὰ νὴ Δία: often used to introduce an objection. For the use of the advs. νή and μά in swearing, see G. 1067; H. 723. ὁ κατήγορος: possibly the author of a κατηγορία Σωκράτους, written after Socrates's death. See Dakyns, Works of Xenophon Vol. III, Part I, pp. xxxviii ff. ἔφη: in direct discourse usually before its subj., as in 12. ὑπερορᾶν τῶν νόμων: the gen. after the analogy of ἀμελεῖν τινος. The acc. is more usual, as in i. 3. 4, 4. 10. ἀπὸ κυάμου: by the bean. The Athenians used black and white beans in selecting certain officials by lot; hence κυαμευτός is equivalent to κληρωτός or αἱρετός.
Xenophon cannot wholly refute the charge that the teachings of Socrates weakened public respect for existing laws; so he blends it with the other charge ποιεῖν βιαίους, maintaining that while Socrates criticised certain governmental institutions, his criticism could never lead to acts of violence. τοὺς φρόνησιν ἀσκοῦντας: those who cultivate practical wisdom. τὰ συμφέροντα: as in i. 1. 3. For the double acc., see G. 1069; H. 724. τοὺς πολίτας: their fellowcitizens. εἰδότας: because they know. —οἱ μὲν γὰρ βιασθέντες κτλ.: for men who have suffered violence are filled with hatred, feeling that they have been robbed. For the thought, cf. Aesop's fable of the Wind and the Sun. κεχαρισμένοι: beneficiis affecti. οὔκουν: declarative negation. τῶν ἀσκούντων: pred.gen.of characteristic. τὸ τοιαῦτα πράττειν: i.e. τὸ βιάζεσθαι.
ἀλλὰ μήν: as in 4, i. 1. 6. συμμάχων: for the gen. with verbs of wanting, see G. 1112; H. 743. οὐκ ὀλίγων: ‘litotes’; the position also helps the emphasis. μόνος: by himself. ἥκιστα συμβαίνει: it least of all occurs, a strong negation. ζῶντι πειθομένῳ χρῆσθαι: “to have his faithful service while living.” For the pred. dat. with χράομαι, see H. 777 a.
12-48. The fact that Alcibiades and Critias wrought great evil in the state should not be laid to the account of Socrates. They were impelled by measureless ambition and lust for power; and in Socrates they only sought a man from whom they could learn the art of persuasion, so as to win thereby positions of political influence. But they sufficiently showed in the sequel that they had not learned to imitate the character and life of their teacher. Socrates did not fail to set before them the attractions of a virtuous life; and, in fact, so long as they remained with him, they showed moderation. But virtue must be practiced to be retained; and they quickly fell a prey to all manner of temptations after leaving Socrates. For this he is not to be held responsible, the less so as he reproached them severely for their unworthy conduct,—incurring thereby the hate of Critias, as he later had cause to know. Thus they only followed their own natural bent after leaving Socrates; while many other friends of Socrates remained true through life to the principles of virtue which they had learned from him. 12. ἔφη γε: with marked emphasis, like Mark Antony's ‘But Brutus says he was ambitious.’ γενομένω: the κατήγορος seems to insinuate a causal, as well as a temporal, force of the participle; post hoc, propter hoc. Κριτίας: son of Callaeschrus, was one of the thirty men who were placed in power at Athens (by the aid of the victorious Lacedaemonians) at the close of the Peloponnesian war (404 B.C.). He took a prominent part in the cruelties practiced by the Thirty, and fell in the final conflicts with the Liberators under Thrasybulus. He had associated, as a young man, with Socrates and Gorgias of Leontini, and was a poet and dramatist of some repute. For an account of his activity, see Hell. ii.3.11 ff. Ἀλκιβιάδης: son of Clinias, born at Athens about 450 B.C.; he was distinguished for his personal beauty, talents, and wealth, and was notorious for his reckless profligacy. Socrates took great interest in him, and seems in return to have been respected and loved by him. At the siege of Potidaea (432 B.C.) Socrates saved his life, a service which Alcibiades returned by aiding Socrates at the battle of Delium (424 B.C.). For his connection with the Sicilian expedition (415 B.C.), see Thuc. vi, passim. Plutarch brackets him with Coriolanus in the Parallel Lives. τὴν πόλιν: for the double acc., see G. 1073; H. 725 a. ἐν τῇ ὀλιγαρχίᾳ: i.e. in 404 B.C., when the Thirty, with Critias at their head, were in power at Athens. Cf. Hell. ii. 3. 11 ff. See on νομοθέτης 31. Aeschines (Contra Timarchum 173) says, with exaggeration, ἔπειτ᾽ ὑμεῖς, ὦ Ἀθηναῖοι, Σωκράτη μὲν τὸν σοφιστὴν ἀπεκτείνατε, ὅτι Κριτίαν ἐφάνη πεπαιδευκώς, ἕνα τῶν τριάκοντα τῶν τὸν δῆμον καταλυσάντων (who overthrew the democracy). κλεπτίστατος, βιαιότατος: so, in ii. 6. 24, χρήματά τε κλέπτειν καὶ βιάζεσθαι ἀνθρώπους are mentioned as low motives for attaining power in the state. ἐν τῇ δημοκρατίᾳ: refers to the public and private life of Alcibiades, down to his return to the army at Samos in 411. See Grote, Hist. of Greece, cc. lv, lxiii.
εἰ ἐποιησάτην: for the past supposition assumed as real (a simply logical cond.), see G. 1390; H. 893. συνουσίαν: ‘prolepsis.’ Cf. ‘I knew thee, that thou art a hard man’ Matt. xxv. 24.
ἐγενέσθην μέν: corresponds to ᾔδεσαν δέ in the following sentence. In this case, μέν and δέ will scarcely be over-translated by on the one hand, on the other. δή: “as is known,” almost equivalent to our colloquial ‘you know.’ ᾔδεσαν: changes from dual to pl. and vice versa, in the same sent., are common. G. 903; H. 634. Cf. 16, 18, 33; Hell. iv.4.7 ζῶντα: for the supplementary participle in indirect discourse, see on i.1.5. ἡδονῶν: equivalent to ἐπιθυμιῶν, the object of desire being substituted for the desire itself. Cf. 23. χρώμενον: “influenced.” βούλοιτο: for the opt., see on μέλλοι i. 1. 10.
ὁρῶντε, ὄντε: accs. agreeing with αὐτώ, and having a causal force. φῇ: interr. subjunctive. G. 1359; H. 866, 3 c. To complete the sense, φῇ τις (sc. αὐτὼ ὀρέξασθαι τῆς ὁμιλίας αὐτοῦ) should be repeated after ἤ. εἰ ὁμιλησαίτην, γενέσθαι ἄν: for the modes in indirect discourse, see G. 1494, 1495, 1497; H. 932, 2(2), 946. ἱκανωτάτω λέγειν τε καὶ πράττειν: very proficient in speech and action. The Greeks often used λέγειν καὶ πράττειν to indicate the theory and practice of an art or a profession. Cf. iv.2.6. For the inf. with adjs., see G. 1526; H. 952.
θεοῦ διδόντος: if God had offered. The gen. abs. is equivalent to a past unfulfilled condition. For the force of the pres. participle, see G. 1255; H. 825. ζῶντα: supplementary participle, to be distinguished from ζῶντα in 14, which also is a supplementary participle, but in indirect discourse. G. 1582, 1583, 1588; H. 982. ἑλέσθαι ἂν τεθνάναι: in i. 6. 4, Socrates imputes this same disposition to Antiphon. Const. ἄν with ἑλέσθαι. δήλω δ̓ ἐγενέσθην κτλ.: “their motives became manifest from their actions.” ἀποπηδήσαντε, ἐπραττέτην: they leaped away, and were busied in. Note the change of tense.
σωφρονεῖν: correlative with τὰ πολιτικά. πρὸς τοῦτο μὲν οὐκ ἀντιλέγω κτλ.: “I do not deny that this was the duty of Socrates; but I claim that he actually did lead his friends to virtue through his precepts and example.” Xenophon postpones the formal refutation of the charge here suggested to iv. 3. 1 ff., where he shows that Socrates strove to secure for his friends a firm foundation in morals, before advising them to enter public life. προβιβάζοντας: sc. αὐτοὺς (τοὺς μανθάνοντας) as object. δεικνύντας, δεικνύντα: for the first, cf. ζῶντα in 16; for the second, cf. ζῶντα in 14. τῶν ἄλλων ἀνθρωπίνων: not different in meaning from τῶν ἀνθρωπείων in i. 1. 16.
κἀκείνω: i.e. Critias and Alcibiades. συνήστην, ζημιοῖντο: for the change of number, see on 14, and for the opt. in clauses expressing apprehension, see G. 1378; H. 887. φοβουμένω: causal.
τῶν φασκόντων φιλοσοφεῖν: refers to the Sophists. φάσκων often suggests the idea of alleging, pretending. For the form, see G. 812; H. 481 a. ἄλλο οὐδέν: best const. as the obj. of the trans. phrase ἀνεπιστήμων γένοιτο. H. 713. Cf. ἐπιστήμονες ἦσαν τὰ προσήκοντα they were acquainted with their duty Cyr. iii. 3. 9. ὧν: with antec. omitted. G. 1026; H. 996. ὁ μαθών: he who has once learned it. γιγνώσκω: think, judge. ὥσπερ τὰ ... δυναμένους ποιεῖν: the const. of the subord. clause is attracted to that of the main clause. ἔργα: obj. of ποιεῖν, to be supplied with δυναμένους.
διό [διὰ ὅ]: for which reason. ὡς ὁμιλίαν οὖσαν: for the acc. abs., see on ὡς προσημαίνοντος i. 1. 4, and G. 1570; H. 974.—ἐσθλῶν κτλ.: these verses, forming an elegiac distich, are from Theognis, a gnomic poet of Megara, who flourished about 530 B.C., and are Nos. 35 and 36 of his 1400 extant verses; for which, see Bergk's Anthologia Lyrica and Poetae Lyrici Graeci. The sympathies and tendencies of Theognis were all aristocratic; his ἐσθλοί were the nobles, and his κακοί the common people: but his sententious wisdom lent itself readily to quotation, and his poetry was popular in Attica. This couplet is quoted by Socrates (Sym. ii. 4) in answer to the question as to whence καλοκἀγαθία could be learned; and again (Plato Meno 95 D) as proof that virtue can be learned. For the meter, see G. 1670, 1671; H. 1101.—αὐτὰρ ἀνὴρ κτλ.: the author of this verse is unknown. It is quoted by Plato (Prot. 344 D) in confirmation of the assertion τῷ μὲν γὰρ ἐσθλῷ ἐγχωρεῖ κακῷ γενέσθαι for it is possible for the good man to become a wicked one.
ὥσπερ ... ἐπιλανθανομένους: for the attraction, cf. 19. ἐν μέτρῳ πεποιημένων ἐπῶν: poetry. ἐπῶν is obj. of ἐπιλανθανομένους. διδασκαλικῶν: instructive. νουθετικῶν: admonitory. —ἐπιλέλησται κτλ.: he has forgotten also the frame of mind in which his soul once longed for virtue. ὧν: i.e. τούτων ἅ, the latter to be closely connected with πάσχουσα. For the case of the rel., see G. 1032; H. 996 a (2).
προαχθέντας: swept away. παραχθέντας would mean led aside. ἔρωτας: concrete, love affairs. ἧττον δυναμένους: sc. than they were before surrendering to these passions. κερδῶν: incorporated in the rel. sentence. G. 1037; H. 995. νομίζοντες: causal. οὐκ: we might expect οὐκέτι.
πῶς οὖν οὐκ ἐνδέχεται: how then is it not possible? The indic. strengthens the rhetorical force of the question. Cf. πῶς οὐκ ἐνόμιζεν i. 1. 5. ἀσκητὰ εἶναι: to be capable of attainment by practice. οὐχ ἥκιστα: most of all, ‘litotes.’ Cf. οὐκ ἀφανής i. 1. 2, οὐ τοὺς χειρίστους i. 2. 32, οὐκ ὀλίγα iv. 2. 12, οὐδὲν ἧττον iii. 7. 4. σωφροσύνη: without the article. So often abstract nouns, regarded as simple conceptions, e.g., κάλλος 24, ἥβην ii. 1. 21, ὥρα ii. 1. 22, ἀρετή iv. 1. 2, σοφία iv. 6. 7. ἡδοναί: voluptates, the passions. Cf. 14. πείθουσιν: tentative present. Cf. διδόντος 16. τὴν ταχίστην: sc. ὁδόν. For the adv. acc., see G. 1060; H. 719. ἑαυταῖς: to them, i.e. ταῖς ἡδοναῖς. See on ἑαυτῷ 3.
δή: so, then, returning to the discussion in 12-16. συμμάχῳ: as a helper. φυγών: in technical sense, being exiled. In 407 B.C., Critias was banished from Athens, and betook himself to the Thessalians, who had an undesirable reputation for license and immorality (cf. ἐκεὶ γὰρ πλείστη ἀταξία καὶ ἀκολασία Plato Crito 53 D). He did not return till after the disaster of Aegospotami, 405 B.C. Cf. Hell. ii. 3. 36; Grote, Hist. of Greece, c. lxv. σεμνῶν: highborn. θηρώμενος: a common metaphor. κολακεύειν: prob. an interpolation to explain δυνατῶν. κἀκεῖνος: renewal of the remote subj. (Ἀλκιβιάδης) for the sake of the contrast to ἀθληταί. Cf. iv.2.25.
αὐτοῖν: dative.—Notice the different metaphors employed. ὀγκόω is lit. swell, as of a tumor; ἐπαίρω lift up, φυσάω puff up, as of a bladder or bellows; διαθρύπτω break down, hence enervate; διαφθείρω corrupt. ἐπὶ δὲ πᾶσι τούτοις: and in addition to all this. τί θαυμαστόν: why is it surprising? εἰ ἐγενέσθην: for the cond. in causal sense, see on i.1.17.
ἐπλημμελησάτην: went wrong. For the cond., see on ἐποιησάτην 13, and obs. that here there is also a causal force. τούτου: for the gen. of cause, see G. 1126; H. 744. ἡνίκα: at an age when. εἰκός: sc. ἐστί. δοκεῖ: sc. ὁ Σωκράτης.
οὐ μήν: neque vero. Cf. i.2.5. αὐλητής: master of the flute. ἐὰν φανῶσιν: for the pres. general supposition, see G. 1393; H. 894. αἰτίαν ἔχει: is blamed. τούτου: as in 26. τὸν πρόσθεν: for the adv. as adj., see G. 952; H. 600.—ἀλλ̓ οὐχ ὅσῳ ἄν κτλ.: “on the contrary, does he not rather award praise to the first teacher, just in proportion as his son seems to have deteriorated while in the society of the second?” ὅσῳ, τοσούτῳ: for the dat. of degree of difference, see G. 1184; H. 781. ἀλλ᾽ οἵ γε πατέρες αὐτοί: nay, the very fathers themselves. συνόντες: concessive. τῶν παίδων πλημμελούντων: with conditional force. ἐάν: provided.
εἰ ἐποίει, ἂν ἐδόκει: see on ἐδόκει δ᾽ ἄν, εἰ ἐφαίνετο i. 1. 5. εἰ σωφρονῶν διετέλει: for the supplementary participle with διατελέω, see G. 1587; H. 981. For the simple past supposition (assumed as real), see on ἐποιησάτην 13. The unfulfilled cond. is again returned to in εἰ ἐπῄνει 29.
Κριτίαν μὲν τοίνυν: the μέν (without a correlative δέ, as in i. 1. 1) introduces the passage closing with 38. τοίνυν marks the transition from the previous sentence. Εὐθυδήμου: in iv. 2. 1, designated as ὁ καλός. — ἀπέτρεπε: for the impf. of attempted action, see G. 1255; H. 832. ὥσπερ τοὺς πτωχούς: i.e. ὥσπερ οἱ πτωχοὶ προσαιτοῦσι, a form of attraction found also in Latin. Cf. “te suspicor iisdem rebus, quibus me ipsum, interdum gravius commoveri” Cic. de Am. i. 1. προσδοῦναι: to grant also, followed by the part. gen. μηδενός. Cf. οὐδεὶς προσδώσει μοι σπλάγχνων Ar. Peace 1111. For the thought, cf. Sym. viii. 22.
τοῦ Κριτίου, τὸν Σωκράτην: the arts. in this section seem intended to heighten the contrast between the persons. Thus far in this chap. the proper names have lacked the article.
ἐξ ὧν δὴ καὶ ἐμίσει ὁ Κριτίας: as a result of which, accordingly, Critias even hated. This does not contradict what is said in 15 and 47: Critias had a grudge against Socrates, yet remained with him until he thought he had learned enough from him. τῶν τριάκοντα: for the pred. gen., see G. 1094, 7; H. 732. νομοθέτης: in the year 404 B.C., the oligarchical party at Athens, backed by the all-powerful Spartan Lysander, succeeded in having a commission of thirty appointed, ostensibly to exercise the ancient function of Nomothetae, or revisers of the laws. Among these, Critias (see on 12), Theramenes, and Charicles were the most prominent. The Thirty soon usurped all the powers of government and inaugurated a reign of terror, which lasted for eight months. For an account of these events, see Grote, Hist. of Greece, c.lxv, and Hell. ii. 3, 4. ἀπεμνημόνευσεν: here in a hostile sense, he remembered it against him. λόγων τέχνην: the art of speaking. The law was broad enough to include the conversational utterances of Socrates.— ὅπῃ ἐπιλάβοιτο: how to reach him. For the opt. representing interr. subjv. of direct discourse, see G. 1490; H. 932, 2. τὸ κοινῇ ... ἐπιτιμώμενον: the charge commonly brought by the many against philosophers. Acc. to Sym. vi. 6; Oec. xi. 3; Ar. Clouds 100 ff.; Plato Apol. 18B, this charge was that philosophers were a race of busybodies, who meddled with things in ‘the heaven above, the earth beneath, and the water under the earth’; and secondly, that they were jugglers with words, making the worse appear the better reason. Cf. also τὰ κατὰ πάντων τῶν φιλοσοφούντων πρόχειρα (commonplaces) ταῦτα λέγουσιν, ὅτι τὰ μετέωρα (celestial phenomena), καὶ τὰ ὑπὸ γῆς, καὶ θεοὺς μὴ νομίζειν, καὶ τὸν ἥττω λόγον κρείττω ποιεῖν (διδάσκει) Plato Apol. 23D. γάρ: explains the preceding διαβάλλων, “slander must we call it,” for. φάσκοντος: see on 19. For the supplementary participle, see on οὐδεὶς δὲ πώποτε Σωκράτους i. 1. 11. ᾐσθόμην: instead of ἤκουσα, to avoid repetition.
ἐδήλωσε: impers., events showed, that the prohibition was aimed at Socrates. Cf. Cyr. vii. 1. 30. οὐ τοὺς χειρίστους: see on οὐχ ἥκιστα 23. For the comparison of the adj., see G. 361, 2; H. 254, 2. ἀδικεῖν: to commit unlawful acts. Cf. πολλοῖς πολλὰ προσέταττον βουλόμενοι ὡς πλείστους ἀναπλῆσαι (to involve) αἰτιῶν Plato Apol. 32C. εἶπέ που: said, I suppose. Xenophon vouches for the thoughts, not for the words. See on i. 1. 1. οἷ: for the indir. refl. use of the pron., see G. 987; H. 685. βοῶν ἀγέλης νομεύς: a comparison perhaps suggested by Hom. B 474-483. Cf. iii.2.1; Plato Gorg. 516 A, B. εἰ ὁμολογοίη: see on ἐθαύμαζε i. 1. 13. εἰ αἰσχύνεται: above, where an imaginary case was suggested, the opt. (ὁμολογοίη) was used; here, to mark the actual fact, the indic. of direct discourse is retained. Cf. ii.6.4.
καλέσαντες, ἐδεικνύτην: for the change in number, see on 14. τὸν νόμον: sc. τὴν λόγων τέχνην μὴ διδάσκειν. μή: for the neg. particle with verbs of forbidding, see G. 1615; H. 1029. εἰ ἐξείη: indir. question. εἰ ἀγνοοῖτο: in case he failed to understand. τῶν προαγορευομένων: “the published injunctions.” τὼ δ᾽ ἐφάτην: and they said yes. For the dem. use of the art., see G. 983; H. 654 e; and for φημί as an affirmative answer, cf. the trial-scene of Orontas, An. i. 6.
λάθω παρανομήσας: for the supplementary participle with λανθάνω, see G. 1586; H. 984. τὴν τῶν λόγων τέχνην: cf. 31. From this definite reference, it would seem that Socrates knew very well what was meant by the prohibition τοῖς νέοις μὴ διαλέγεσθαι. σὺν τοῖς ὀρθῶς λεγομένοις εἶναι: to be associated with right teachings. μὴ ὀρθῶς: sc. λεγομένοις. For μή with the participle, see on i.1.9. ἀφεκτέον: for the impers. use of the verbal in -τέος, see on i.1.14.
τάδε εὐμαθέστερα ὄντα: “these orders in more intelligible terms.” ὅλως μὴ διαλέγεσθαι: well illustrates the arrogance of arbitrary power. ἵνα μὴ ἀμφίβολον ᾖ: “that there may be no question,” lit. that it may not be doubtful. ὡς ... προηγορευμένα: “as to the question whether I am acting in violation of the injunctions.” ὁρίσατε: define. μέχρι πόσων ἐτῶν: until what age. For πόσων, see on τίσι i. 1. 1. νέους: predicate. ὅσουπερ χρόνου: for just as long a period. βουλεύειν: see on βουλεύσας i. 1. 18. ὡς οὔπω φρονίμοις οὖσιν: as not yet having arrived at years of discretion. For the participle, see on i.1.4. All members of the βουλή must be at least thirty years of age. See Gardner and Jevons, Manual of Greek Antiq., c. ix.
ἐὰν ὠνῶμαι, ἢν πωλῇ: if I wish to purchase, if he offer to sell. The pres. implies desired action. See on διδόντος 16. For the variant forms of the conj., see on i.2.2. μηδ᾽ ἔρωμαι: for the interr. subjv., see G. 1358; H. 866, 3; and, for μηδέ with the interr. subjv. expecting an affirmative answer, GMT. 293. Cf. μὴ ἀποκρίνωμαι, ἀλλ᾽ ἕτερον εἴπω Plato Rep. 337 B. εἰδώς: concessive. πῶς ἔχει: “the facts of the case.” τὰ πλεῖστα: cognate accusative. ἐάν: provided that, introduces a second and subord. protasis. GMT. 510. οἷον: for example. Cf. i. 1. 9.
ἀπέχεσθαι δεήσει: it will be necessary to keep away from, with sarcastic formality. σκυτέων, τεκτόνων, χαλκέων: Socrates, like a greater Teacher, sought his illustrations in the familiar and homely things of daily life, and especially in the handicrafts. Cf. iv.2.6, 4. 5; also, ἀτέχνως (actually) γε ἀεὶ σκυτέας τε καὶ κναφέας (fullers) καὶ μαγείρους (cooks) λέγων καὶ ἰατροὺς οὐδὲν παύει, ὡς περὶ τούτων ἡμῖν ὄντα τὸν λόγον Plato Gorg. 491 A. καὶ γὰρ οἶμαι ... ὑπὸ σοῦ: for I think that they have become worn out, being constantly talked of by you. τῶν ἑπομένων τούτοις: the subjects which are connected with these, sc. in our conversations. τῶν ἑπομένων is explained by the following appositives τοῦ δικαίου etc. καὶ τῶν βουκόλων γε: This allusion by Charicles to the words of Socrates in 32 completes the list of prohibited topics; and completes, also, the evidence introduced in 32 by ἐδήλωσε δέ. ὅπως μὴ ποιήσῃς κτλ.: A thinly disguised threat; for the failure of such attempts to coerce Socrates, cf. the incident related in Plato Apol. 32C, D.
οἵα μὲν οὖν: closes what was begun in 13. Both there and here the relation between Socrates and the two young men is called συνουσία. A παίδευσις is denied in the following sentence. μηδενὶ μηδεμίαν: for μή and its compounds with the inf. of indirect discourse, instead of οὐ, see GMT. 685, and Gildersleeve, Am. Jour. Philol., i. p. 51. οὐκ: belongs grammatically to ὡμιλησάτην, but practically denies ἀρέσκοντος as a motive for the action of Critias and Alcibiades, and contrasts it with the real motive ὡρμηκότε. ὡμιλησάτην, ὡμιλείτην: note the significant change of tense. ἀλλ᾽ εὐθὺς ἐξ ἀρχῆς ὡρμηκότε: but because from the very beginning they had set out.
πρὶν εἴκοσιν ἐτῶν εἶναι: viz. before 430 B.C.; for Alcibiades was born about 450 B.C. For the inf. with temporal particles, see G. 1469 ff.; H. 955; and, for the pred. gen. of measure, G. 1094, 5; H. 732.— τοιάδε διαλεχθῆναι: had some such conversation as this, a good example of how the younger friends of Socrates imitated their master in ἐξετάζειν. Cf. καὶ αὐτοὶ (οἱ νέοι μοι ἐπακολουθοῦντες) πολλάκις ἐμὲ μιμοῦνται, εἶτα ἐπιχειροῦσιν ἄλλους ἐξετάζειν Plato Apol. 23C.
εἰπέ: for the accent, see G. 131, 2; H. 387 b. Περίκλεις: for the decl. of proper nouns in -κλέης, see G. 231; H. 194. ἔχοις ἄν: potential opt. of courteous inquiry. μέ: for double acc. with verbs of teaching, see G. 1069; H. 724. τί ἐστι νόμος: for a short definition of νόμος, cf. iv.4.13. τινῶν ἐπαινουμένων: for the supplementary participle with verbs of perception, see on i.1.11. οἶμαι μὴ τυχεῖν: see on μηδενί 39, and on i. 1. 20.
οὐδέν τι: not at all, adv. acc. with χαλεποῦ. See on τὴν ταχίστην 23. τὸ πλῆθος: the people, plebs. The orators often used the phrase τὸ ὑμέτερον πλῆθος, referring to the democracy at Athens. ἔγραψε: enacts. φράζον: stating. νομίσαν: sc. τὸ πλῆθος ἔγραψε. ὦ μειράκιον: my lad.
ὥσπερ ὅπου: as is the case where. τὸ κρατοῦν τῆς πόλεως: ‘the powers that be’ in the state. For the subst. use of the participle, see G. 1560; H. 966. τύραννος: with no implied reproach as in Eng. ‘tyrant.’ The word is one of many which have degenerated. Cf., and trace to their origin, our villain, knave, and varlet. γράφει: ind., being an accepted particular case of the previous general supposition.
ἆρ᾽ οὐ: sc. βία ἐστί. πείσας: participle of means. βιασάμενος: a rigid definition of βία would exclude βιασάμενος here, as containing in itself the idea to be defined. Yet, as ἀνομία also was to be defined, the participle contrasted with πείσας may be admitted, as suggesting some of the elements of ἀνομία. ἀνατίθεμαι: I retract, lit. put back, a term borrowed from games like checkers, in which the player ‘takes back’ the pieces moved (ἀνατιθέναι πεττούς). The mid. voice is significant. μὴ πείσας: these words were not uttered in 43 (καὶ ὅσα τύραννος γράφει), but they are inserted here, as having been easily understood in the words of Pericles, and as having actually been used by Alcibiades.
μὴ φῶμεν: see on ἔρωμαι 36. βία: nom. after εἶναι, as πάντα is subj. of δοκεῖ as well as of the infinitive. See G. 927; H. 940. τὸ πᾶν πλῆθος: the collective people. ἄρα: sc. “according to your view.” ἂν εἴη: for the ‘mixed’ const., see G. 1421, 1, 1437; H. 901 b, 918. ἢ νόμος: a positive answer to the question τί ἐστι νόμος (41) is, after all, not given. Xenophon is only trying to show what subjects Alcibiades liked to discuss, and how well he had learned from Socrates the art of ‘cornering’ an adversary.
μάλα τοι: connect with δεινοί. καὶ ἡμεῖς: for the pl. of ‘modest assertion,’ see H. 637. Pericles speaks with a touch of ironical humor, as the next words show. δεινοὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα: strong at such things (the arts of debate). ἐσοφιζόμεθα: we used to discuss. συνεγενόμην: for the indic. in expressions of wishing, see G. 1511; H. 871. δεινότατος σαυτοῦ: “at the height of your powers.” Pericles is compared with himself at different periods of his life. The gen. is partitive. G. 1088 (last example); H. 729 e.
ἐπεὶ τάχιστα: as soon as. οὔτε, τέ: nec, et. ἄλλως, for other reasons, than the one to be mentioned. προσέλθοιεν: for the opt. in past general suppositions, see G. 1393, 2; H. 894, 2. ὑπὲρ ὧν: for the assimilation, see on ὧν 21. ὧνπερ ἕνεκεν καί: for which very reason also.
Κρίτων ... Φαιδώνδας: for Crito, see ii. 9. 1 ff.; for Chaerephon, Ar. Clouds 104; Plato Apol. 20E, 21, and ii. 3, q.v. also for Chaerecrates. Cebes and Simmias left their native Thebes to become companions of Socrates. Cf. iii.11.17 and Plato Phaedo 59 C. Phaedondas also was a Theban. For Hermogenes, see on ii.10.3; iv. 8. 4. δημηγορικοὶ ἢ δικανικοί: public or forensic orators. οὐδείς, οὔτε, οὔτε: for the strengthened negation expressed by a series of compound negs. following a neg., see G. 1619; H. 1030.— αἰτίαν ἔσχεν: incurred reproach. See on αἰτίαν ἔχει 27.
49-55. Socrates had no desire to disturb the relations of children with parents, or of kindred to one another. But he recognized how external and material these relations remain in the case of many; while in other affairs little value is assigned to the material unless inspired by a soul: and he set himself, accordingly, to give to the relations of kinsfolk a moral content and a firmer basis, by the aid of mutual forbearance and assistance. 49. κατήγορος: see on 9. προπηλακίζειν ἐδίδασκε: in Ar. Clouds 1321 ff., Phidippides strikes his father, and argues that he has the right to do so. αὐτῷ: for the use of αὐτός in its oblique cases as a refl. pron., see G. 992; H. 684 a. Cf. τοὺς ὁμιλοῦντας αὐτῷ iv. 7. 1. τῆς παρανοίας ἑλόντι: if one convicted (his father) of dementia. For the gen., see G. 1121; H. 745. The reference is to the legally authorized complaint παρανοίας, as it was brought, e.g., against Sophocles by his sons. Cf. οἴμοι, τί δράσω παραφρονοῦντος τοῦ πατρός; | πότερον παρανοίας αὐτὸν εἰσαγαγὼν ἕλω, | ἢ τοῖς σοροπηγοῖς τὴν μανίαν αὐτοῦ φράσω; (or inform the coffin-makers of his insanity) Ar. Clouds 844 ff. The accuser charged Socrates with using the existence of this law as an argument that the ignorant could always be legally imprisoned by the more learned. καὶ τὸν πατέρα: even his father. τεκμηρίῳ: as an indication, pred. appos. with τούτῳ. G. 916; H. 777 a.
δεσμεύοντα: sc. ἄλλον τινά. ἂν αὐτὸν δεδέσθαι: would himself be kept in prison. τί διαφέρει μανίας ἀμαθία: discussed in iii. 9. 6. ἑαυτοῖς, φίλοις: depend on συμφερόντως. G. 1174; H. 767.
παρά: in the opinion of.— ὡς οὔτε τοὺς κάμνοντας κτλ.: the Eng. idiom is best attained by preserving the Greek order of words and translating ὠφελοῦσιν as passive. οἱ συνδικεῖν ἐπιστάμενοι: “their legal advisers.”
ὡς ὄφελος: sc. ἐστί. εἰ μὴ δυνήσονται: unless they are going to be able. For the ind. in fut. cond. of the ‘more vivid’ form, see G. 1387; H. 899. ἑρμηνεῦσαι: cf. Thuc. ii. 60, where Pericles says οὐδενὸς οἴομαι ἥσσων εἶναι γνῶναί τε τὰ δέοντα καὶ ἑρμηνεῦσαι I think I am inferior to none in both seeing and explaining what ought to be done. ἀναπείθοντα: by persuading. διατιθέναι: disposed. Cf. διατιθείς An. i.1.5 μηδαμοῦ: of no account. Cf. Plato Gorg. 456 C. πρὸς ἑαυτόν: in comparison with him.
οἶδα μέν: not correlative to ἔλεγε δέ of the next section. Rather in both sections is the assumption of the accuser admitted, and even reinforced by other assertions of Socrates which stand in close connection with it. This admission is introduced by οἶδα μέν, the implied contrast being anticipated from 55, viz., that the accuser wholly misconceived the meaning of the assertions cited. For μέν, see on i.1.1. λέγοντα: for the supplementary participle, see on i.2.14. καί, γέ: nay, even. ὅτι ἀφανίζουσιν: depends on λέγοντα. τοῦ οἰκειοτάτου ἀνθρώπου: their nearest kinsman. ἀφανίζουσιν: a term freq. used for burial. Cf. Soph. Ant. 255.
ἕκαστος ἑαυτοῦ κτλ.: const. ἕκαστος ὅ τι ἂν τοῦ σώματος (ὃ ἑαυτοῦ πάντων μάλιστα φιλεῖ which of all things belonging to himself he most loves) ἀχρεῖον ᾖ καὶ ἀνωφελές, αὐτός τε ἀφαιρεῖ κτλ. παρέχει: permits, sc. ἀφαιρεῖν. αὐτοί τέ γε αὑτῶν ἀφαιροῦσι: men both themselves rid themselves of. καὶ τοῖς ἰατροῖς ... ἀποκαίειν: naturally refers only to τύλους. χάριν: for the adv. acc., see on i.2.23. τίνειν: in this sense, ἀποτίνειν or τελεῖν is more common. ἐνόν: sc. τῷ σώματι.
ἐπιδεικνύων: not correlative with διδάσκων, but belonging as a circumstantial participle of manner to παρεκάλει. τοῦ εἶναι: for the articular inf., see on i.1.12. τῷ οἰκεῖος εἶναι πιστεύων: relying on his being a relation. For the nom., see on βία i. 2. 45. ἀμελῇ: for the subjv. in final clauses, see G. 1365; H. 881.
56-64. The charge that Socrates spread immoral and pernicious doctrines by perverting passages from the poets is refuted by citing two quotations on which Socrates put a quite different interpretation from that imputed to him by the accuser: and is also sufficiently disproved by his blameless, unselfish, and patriotic life. To sum up, this man of pure character, this promoter of all that was good, deserved from the state, not death, but the highest honor. 56. ἐκλεγόμενον ... διδάσκειν: for the basis of fact underlying this distorted assertion, cf. i.6.14. τῶν ἐνδοξοτάτων ποιητῶν: of the three divisions of instruction, γράμματα, μουσική, and γυμναστική, the first-named, as a rule, included most of the formal instruction in language and literature received by the Greek boy at school. As soon as a boy had learned to read and write, he was ‘encouraged or compelled to learn by heart great masses of poetry, especially of Homer or Simonides, or the gnomic poets. Many a Greek knew by heart the whole of the Iliad and Odyssey.’ Gardner and Jevons, Manual of Greek Antiq., pp. 307, 308. Cf. Sym. iii. 5, 6. τούτοις μαρτυρίοις χρώμενον: cf. τεκμηρίῳ τούτῳ χρώμενος 49.—ἔργον δ̓ οὐδὲν ὄνειδος κτλ.: from Hesiod's didactic poem Works and Days 311, where the reference is to agricultural labor only. The accuser seems to have perverted the sense of the verse by connecting οὐδέν with ἔργον, whereas it belongs to ὄνειδος. ἀεργίη: with long penult. So Hom. ω 251, κακοεργίης χ 374. δή: now, with resumptive force. So in 58; in both places δή has a somewhat fainter effect than, e.g., in 24.
ἐπεὶ διομολογήσαιτο: for the opt., see on μέλλοι i. 1. 10. τὸ μὲν ἐργάτην εἶναι: subj. of ὠφέλιμόν τε καὶ ἀγαθὸν εἶναι. τὸ δὲ ἀργόν: sc. εἶναι. ἀπεκάλει: see on i.2.6. ἐκ δὲ τούτων: “and with this interpretation.”
ὅν τινα μὲν βασιλῆα κτλ.: the verses are from Hom. B 188-191, and 198-202, and depict Odysseus repressing the tumult among the Achaeans. κιχείη: for the opt., cf. διομολογήσαιτο 57. ἐπέεσσιν: Epic for ἔπεσιν. ἐρητύσασκε: for the form, see G. 778, 1298; H. 493. ὥς: for the accent, see G. 138, 2; H. 112 b. σέο: for the form, see G. 393; H. 261 D. ἐξηγεῖσθαι, ὡς: interpreted, to the effect that. δημότας: of Greek prose writers only Herodotus and Xenophon use δημότης in the sense of ‘a common man,’ the usual Attic word for which is δημοτικός. In 60, however, δημοτικός is equivalent to popularis, a friend of the people.
οὕτω γ᾽ ἂν ᾤετο: in that case he would have been thinking, i.e. “would have been forced to think,” as Socrates himself was one of the πένητες. For the impf., see on i.1.5; and for the meaning of πένητας, cf. the discussion between Socrates and Euthydemus iv. 2. 37 ff.—ἀλλὰ δεῖν κτλ.: “he who neither in war nor in public life can serve the state or be useful to the people should be kept out of public and military life.” ἄλλως τε: and especially, not to be confused with the similar and more common ἄλλως τε καί both in other respects, and particularly.
τἀναντία τούτων: sc. τῶν θρασέων καὶ τῷ δήμῳ βοηθεῖν μὴ ἱκανῶν. τἀναντία is adv., and takes the gen. after the analogy of certain adjs. of place. G. 1146; H. 754 f. ἐπιθυμητάς: eager followers. ἀστούς, ξένους: in partitive appos. with ἐπιθυμητάς. G. 914; H. 624 d. οὐδένα, μισθόν: for the double acc., see on 5. συνουσίας: cf. 39. τῶν ἑαυτοῦ: “of his own good things.” ὧν τινες: Aristippus of Cyrene was the first of Socrates's followers to demand pay for his services. Cf. Diog. Laert. ii. 65. χρήματα διδόναι: for the limiting inf. with nouns, see G. 1530; H. 952.
πρὸς τοὺς ἄλλους ἀνθρώπους: in his relations to other men. Cf. καὶ πρὸς φίλους δὲ καὶ ξένους i. 3. 3. Λίχας: acc. to Plutarch (Cim. 10), Lichas was renowned for his hospitality toward strangers who visited Sparta at the festival of the Gymnopaedia, when naked youths danced and sang round the statue of Apollo Carneius, in honor of the Spartans who fell at the battle of Thyrea. γυμνοπαιδίαις: for the dat. of time, see G. 1192; H. 782. τὰ μέγιστα, τοὺς βουλομένους: for the double acc., see on τὴν πόλιν 12. ποιῶν: equiv. to impf. ἐποίει, the action being regarded as freq. repeated. Here, as often, the partic. contains the main thought, the finite verb the subord. one. Cf. τούτους εὖ ποιήσαντες ἀποπέμπετε Cyr. viii. 7. 27.
ἐμοὶ δὴ κτλ.: with allusion to i. 1. 1, where see on μέν and τῇ πόλει. καὶ δέ: see on κἀκεῖνος δέ i. 1. 3. τούτοις: refers, by ‘synesis,’ to the collective τὶς. H. 633. Cf. ἕκαστος, αὐτοί 54. θάνατος: for the omission of the art. with a pred. noun or adj., see G. 956; H. 669.
ἀλλὰ μήν: see on i.1.6. πολέμου κακῶς συμβάντος: of a war's turning out badly. The participle contains the main idea, and the whole phrase may be conveniently const. as objective gen. with αἴτιος. G. 1139, 1140; H. 753, and e. Cf. the acc. with prep. in such phrases as μετὰ Κῦρον θανόντα after Cyrus's death, and the Lat. ab urbe condita.
ἔνοχος εἴη: be liable to (lit. held in). ὅς: see on 1. νομίζειν: as in i. 1. 1. γέγραπτο: stood charged. The aug. omitted, as freq. with the plpf. in prose, apparently for the sake of euphony. ὅ, αὐτόν: for the double acc., see G. 1076; H. 725. Cf. οὐκ αἰτιῶμαι τάδε τὸν θεόν Cyr. vii. 2. 22, τὸ γενόμενον τὸ θεῖον αἰτιᾶσθαι Hell. vii.5.12 εὖ οἰκοῦσι: are prosperous. Cf. ποῖαι δὲ πόλεις νομίμως ἂν οἰκήσειαν; Cyr. viii. 1. 2. In Homer, the meaning of ναιετᾶν, ναίειν is, in like manner, weakened to something like εἶναι. μεγάλης τιμῆς: such as the reward suggested in Plato Apol. 36D. ἄξιος τῇ πόλει: as in i. 1. 1.
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