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In the two preceding chapters it was shown that Socrates did not influence his followers to their injury (negative proof); in what follows, it is shown in detail that he understood how to encourage them in all that is good, by word and example (positive proof). His piety is first depicted, and especially the manner in which he would have the gods honored; afterwards, his temperance in all bodily pleasures is described.
ὡς, δή: (to show) that, really. καὶ ὠφελεῖν: even to be aiding, not only to be abstaining from injuring. τὰ μέν, τὰ δέ: partly, partly. G. 982; H. 654 b. δεικνύων ἑαυτόν, οἷος ἦν: for the ‘prolepsis,’ see on συνουσίαν i. 2. 13. διαμνημονεύσω: for the mode, see G. 1434; H. 916. τὰ μὲν τοίνυν: τοίνυν indicates the transition to the detailed discussion of what has been announced; μέν introduces the first part of the discussion, and δέ at the beginning of 5, the second. ἡ Πυθία: the Pythia, the priestess of Apollo at Delphi. For an account of the oracles in general, and the Delphic oracle in particular, see Gardner and Jevons, Manual of Greek Antiq., pp. 106, 107, 264, 265. πῶς: see on τίσι i. 1. 1. προγόνων θεραπείας: for the place of ancestor worship in Greek religion, see Gardner and Jevons, p. 72 ff. ἥ τε γὰρ Πυθία, Σωκράτης τε: “for as the Pythia, so Socrates.” Cf. ἐγώ τε γάρ, αἵ τε πόλεις ii. 1. 9. ἀναιρεῖ: the technical term for the answers of the Pythia. Cf. καὶ ἀνεῖλεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἀπόλλων θεοῖς οἷς ἔδει θύειν An. iii.1.16 παρῄνει: sc. ποιεῖν. Cf. “Deinceps in lege est, ut de ritibus patriis colantur optimi: de quo cum consulerent Athenienses Apollinem Pythium, quas potissimum religiones (rites) tenerent, oraculum editum est, eas quae essent in more maiorum” Cic. de Legg. ii. 15. 40.
εὔχετο πρὸς τοὺς θεούς: εὔχεσθαι πρός τινα is usual when an inf. follows. Kr. Spr. 48. 7. 14. Cf. Ξέρξης εὔχετο πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον Hdt. vii. 54. ὡς εἰδότας: see on ὡς προσημαίνοντος i. 1. 4. τοὺς θεούς is purposely repeated. For the thought, cf. Socrates, inquit, nihil ultra petendum a diis immortalibus arbitrabatur, quam quid unicuique esset utile, nos autem id plerumque votis expetere, quod non impetrasse melius foret Valer. Max. vii. 2. εἰ εὔχοιντο: for the ellipsis of the apod., see G. 1420; H. 905 a, 3. ὅπως ἀποβήσοιτο: depends on ἀδήλων (sc. ὄντων). See on i. 1. 6.
μειοῦσθαι: fall short of. καλῶς ἔχειν: without ἄν, after the analogy of καλῶς εἶχε, καλὸν ἦν, ἐξῆν, etc. See G. 1400; H. 897. εἰ ἔχαιρον: for the impf. in dependent clauses of indirect discourse, see GMT. 691; H. 936. ἂν εἶναι κεχαρισμένα: sc. εἰ ἔχαιρον. κὰδ δύναμιν: equivalent to κατὰ δύναμιν. For the ‘apocope’ and ‘assimilation,’ see G. 53; H. 84D. The verse is from Hesiod Works and Days 336. τὴν ἄλλην δίαιταν: “our other relations in life.” τὴν κὰδ δύναμιν δ᾽ ἔρδειν: the admonition (παραίνεσιν) to act according to our powers. Cf. τὸ γνῶθι σαυτόν iv. 2. 24.
εἰ δόξειεν αὐτῷ: “as often as it seemed to him.” See on ἐπεί i. 2. 57. ἂν ἐπείσθη: the prot. really suggested by this apod. is εἴ τις αὐτὸν ἔπειθεν, if any one tried to persuade him; and this prot. is found, without its apod., in the next sentence. ἔπειθεν: impf. of attempted and continued past action. τῶν ἄλλων: for the gen. with compounds of κατά, see G. 1123; H. 752. πάντα, ὑπερεώρα: see on i.2.9. πρός: in comparison with, as in i. 2. 52. The Lat. ad is used in the same sense.
χρώμενος: for the participle of cond., see on λέγων i. 1. 20. τὶ δαιμόνιον: “something extraordinary.” Cf. ἢν μή τι δαιμόνιον κωλύῃ Eq. xi. 13. For the two prots. with same apod., see GMT. 510. καὶ οὐκ ἂν ... δαπάνης: and would not lack the means for such an outlay. For the gen. of plenty or want, see G. 1112; H. 743. εὐτελής (sc. ἡ δίαιτα): frugal. οὐκ οἶδ᾽ εἴ τις: “scarcely any one.” ἐργάζοιτο: would work for, potential optative. For ἐργάζομαι in this sense, cf. τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἐργάζεσθαι ii. 8. 2. ὥστε μὴ λαμβάνειν: for the inf. of result, see G. 1450; H. 953. τὰ Σωκράτει ἀρκοῦντα: what sufficed for Socrates. For the thought, cf. i.6.4. ἡδέως: with relish. Cf. ἥδιστα ἐσθίων i. 6. 5. ἐπὶ τοῦτο: i.e. ἐπὶ τὸ ἐσθίειν. τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν ὄψον εἶναι: cf. λιμῷ δὲ ὅσαπερ ὄψῳ διαχρῆσθε Cyr. i. 5. 12. Cf. the Lat. proverb fames optimum condimentum. Athenaeus (4, p. 157) describes Socrates as taking long walks in the evening, ‘to collect,’ as he said, ‘sauce (ὄψον) for his supper.’ διὰ τὸ πίνειν: see on ἐπὶ τὸ φροντίζειν i. 1. 12.
ὅ: precedes its grammatical antec. τοῦτο. ὥστε φυλάξασθαι: namely, to guard against, added in explanation of the rel. clause. For ὥστε with the inf., instead of the simple inf. as subj., see GMT. 588.— τὰ πείθοντα κτλ.: “tempting dishes.” Cf. ὁ Σωκράτης παρακελευόμενος φυλάττεσθαι τῶν βρωμάτων ὅσα μὴ πεινῶντας ἐσθίειν ἀναπείθει (as persuade those who are not hungry to eat) Plut. Mor. 128 D. For ἐσθίειν and πίνειν as objs. of πείθοντα, see G. 1519; H. 948.
τὴν Κίρκην: the famous sorceress who bewitched the companions of Odysseus. Cf. Hom. κ 229 ff. τοὺς πολλούς: opposed to τὸν Ὀδυσσέα. For the double acc. with ποιεῖν, see G. 1077; H. 726. ὑποθημοσύνῃ: Ionic for συμβουλῇ, like ὑποτίθεσθαι for συμβουλεύειν. ὄντα: causal. τοῦ ἅπτεσθαι: for the gen. of the articular inf. with verbs of hindering or freedom, see G. 1549; H. 963. διὰ ταῦτα: like εἶτα, ἔπειτα, οὕτως, often used after participles to bring out the relation (in this case a causal one) of these to the main verb. GMT. 857; H. 976 b.
ἔπαιζεν ἅμα σπουδάζων: “he used to say jestingly but with an earnest inner meaning.” See on iv. 1. 1. τῶν καλῶν: limiting gen. with ἀφροδισίων. G. 1085; H. 729. Cf. τοῖς τῶν ὡραίων ἀφροδισίοις ἡδόμενοι ii. 6. 22. ἁπτόμενον: see on πιστεύων i. 1. 5. ἀλλὰ καί: atque adeo. Κριτόβουλον: for the ‘prolepsis,’ see on i.2.13. In Oec. ii. 7, Socrates says to Critobulus ὁρῶ σε οἰόμενον πλουτεῖν καὶ ἀμελῶς μὲν ἔχοντα πρὸς τὸ μηχανᾶσθαι χρήματα, παιδικοῖς δε πράγμασι προσέχοντα τὸν νοῦν (giving your mind to frivolous matters). τὸν Ἀλκιβιάδου υἱόν: as Alcibiades, so far as known, had but one son, born in 416, after the probable date of this conversation, it has been conjectured that both here and in 10 the reference is to Clinias, the son of Axiochus and a cousin of Alcibiades. Cf. Sym. iv. 12.
εἰπέ: for the accent, see on i.2.41. ἀνθρώπων: for the partitive pred. gen., see on τῶν τριάκοντα i. 2. 31. ῥιψοκινδύνων: foolhardy, lit. hurlers of risks. λεωργότατον: one who will do anything, hence most reckless.—εἰς μαχαίρας κτλ.: proverbial expressions for incurring great risks. Cf. δοκεῖ οὖν μοι εἰς μαχαίρας κυβιστᾶν κινδύνου ἐπίδειγμα (an exhibition) εἶναι, ὃ συμποσίῳ οὐδὲν προσήκει Sym. vii. 3. εἰς πῦρ ἅλοιτο: cf. ἐγὼ μετὰ Κλεινίου κἂν διὰ πυρὸς ἰοίην Sym. iv. 16.
τί: obj. of ποιοῦντα. τοιαῦτα κατέγνωκας αὐτοῦ: have you formed such a bad opinion of him. For the gen. and acc. with compounds of κατά, cf. 4. οὐ γάρ: in a question containing a quick retort, as in ii. 3. 16. ἀλλ᾽ εἰ μέντοι: at si profecto. τὸ ῥιψοκίνδυνον ἔργον: “what you have just described as a foolhardy act.” τό is equivalent to illud. ἂν ὑπομεῖναι: see on ἄν ποτε κινηθῆναι i. 1. 14.
ἆρ᾽ οὐκ: For the interr. particle, see G. 1603; H. 1015.— πολλὴν δὲ ἀσχολίαν κτλ.: “to have no leisure for giving attention to any noble or honorable thing,” lit. to have great lack of leisure. For the gen. of the articular inf., see GMT. 798; H. 959. ἐφ᾽ οἷς: sc. ἐπὶ τούτοις as antecedent. ἐπί with the dat. here denotes the motive or end in view. See G. 1210, 2 c; H. 799, 2 c. μαινόμενος: for the omission of the art. with a subst. participle, see G. 1560, 2; H. 966.
Ἡράκλεις: for the decl., see on Περίκλεις i. 2. 41. ὡς δεινήν τινα: what a terrible sort of thing. τὶς, like Lat. quidam, may be added to adjs. to express indefiniteness of nature. G. 1016; H. 702. τὰ φαλάγγια: for the generic art., see G. 950; H. 659. ὄντα: concessive. τοῦ φρονεῖν ἐξίστησι: mente destituit, deprives of reason. Cf. ἐξιστάμενοι τοῦ ἀναλογίζεσθαι ii. 1. 4. ἐνίησι, κατὰ τὸ δῆγμα: inject along with their bite.
τοὺς δὲ καλοὺς κτλ.: with ellipsis of the correlative μέν clause τὰ μὲν φαλάγγια ἐνιέναι τι λέγεις. Cf. οὐ δ᾽ ᾤου iii. 3. 11. θηρίον: for the application of this term to human beings, cf. iii.11.11. τοσούτῳ δεινότερον, ὅσῳ: as much more dangerous, in proportion as. In the clauses introduced by ὅσῳ there is another comparison, between the easier method of avoiding (suggested by ἁψάμενα), and the more difficult one (suggested by οὐδ᾽ ἁπτόμενον): Cf. Cyr. vi. 2. 19. ἐκεῖνα, τοῦτο: τοῦτο sometimes, as here, refers to what is nearer in importance to the speaker, though more remote in the sentence. ἐκεῖνα, therefore, refers to τῶν φαλαγγίων.
καί: refers back to the advice given in 6, which here finds its application to sensual pleasures. For the thought, cf. Sym. iv. 38. ἀφροδισιάζειν: const. with πρὸς τοιαῦτα.
οὕτω παρεσκευασμένος ἦν: sic paratam sententiam habebat. ἂν ἥδεσθαι: see on ἂν κινηθῆναι i. 1. 14. λυπεῖσθαι: sc. ἄν.
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