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Socrates dissuades his friends from boastful pretense, which not only brings ridicule and misfortune upon the pretender, but also injures others.
ἀλαζονείας: Cf. Xenophon's own explanation of the term, ὁ μὲν γὰρ ἀλαζὼν ἔμοιγε δοκεῖ ὄνομα κεῖσθαι ἐπὶ τοῖς προσποιουμένοις καὶ πλουσιωτέροις εἶναι ἤ εἰσι καὶ ἀνδρειοτέροις καὶ ποιήσειν ἃ μὴ ἱκανοί εἰσιν ὑπισχνουμένοις, καὶ ταῦτα φανεροῖς γιγνομένοις, ὅτι τοῦ λαβεῖν ἕνεκα καὶ κερδᾶναι ποιοῦσι Cyr. ii. 2. 12. See also Theophrastus Char. c. 23. ἤ: sc. αὕτη. τοῦτο: for the case, see on πόδας i. 6. 6. ἂν γένοιτο: would become, potential optative. See on ὁμολογήσειεν i. 1. 5. For the thought, cf. ii.6.39; Cyr. i. 6. 22.—For καί after ὅ, see on i.1.6.
γάρ: its use suggests that the preceding οὐκ εἴη καλλίων κτλ. is felt as the beginning of the conversation. τὰ ἔξω: the externals. For the double acc. with μιμητέον, see G. 1076; H. 725. σκεύη: collective pl., equipment. Cf. Lat. apparatus. ἔπειτα: without δέ, as in i. 2. 1. ἀλλὰ μήν: at vero. ἤ: or else. ἀλαζών: adj. use, gloriosus. δαπανῶν: circumstantial participle of condition. See on πιστεύων i. 1. 5.
ὡς δ᾽ αὔτως: and in the same way. Cf. ὡσαύτως in 4. τί ἂν αὐτῷ συμβαίνοι: what would happen to him? ἆρ᾽ οὐκ ἂν ... τοῦτ̓ εἴη λυπηρόν: the sent. is twice interrupted, as ἐπιθυμῶν is equiv. to a clause. For an even more involved structure, cf. ἢ ὅστις, ὥσπερ κτλ. iv. 2. 25. λυπηρόν: painful. κυβερνᾶν τε: instead of καὶ στρατηγεῖν, this is followed by ἢ στρατηγεῖν, with a slight change in the thought. Cf. ἡ γῆ, ὑγροτέρα τε οὖσα πρὸς τὸν σπόρον ἢ ἁλμοδεστέρα (too saltish) πρὸς φυτείαν Oec. xx. 12. ἀπαλλάξειεν: would come out of it. In this sense, the pass. is somewhat more common.
δοκεῖν (sc. εἶναι): the pretense of being. The thought is “if one should endeavor to seem to excel (§2), he would have much trouble; and the false reputation, when acquired, is injurious.” ἀλυσιτελὲς ἀπέφαινε: sc. ὄν. After verbs of knowing, declaring, etc., the participle of εἰμί is sometimes omitted. Cf. ii.3.14; An. iii.1.36 ἢ κατὰ δύναμιν: “than their strength would bear.” συγγνώμης: indulgence. For the case, see on στόματος i. 4. 12.
οὐ μικρόν: ‘litotes,’ as shown by the following πολὺ δὲ μέγιστον. Cf. i.2.23. εἴ τις: “whoever,” referring to ἀπατεῶνα. ὅστις: instead of εἴ τις. For the same variation, cf. i.6.13. ἐξηπατήκοι: the pf. emphasizes the deception as an accomplished fact.—ἐμοὶ μὲν κτλ.: Xenophon's conclusion. For μέν, see on i.1.1. τοιάδε: instead of the more usual τοιαῦτα, perhaps as bringing the whole conversation more vividly before the eye. See H. 696 a.
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