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No one can govern who does not govern himself. He who does not rule must serve: there is no middle path. To reach self-mastery, we must take pains. This thought is illustrated by the allegory (21-33) of Hercules at the parting of the ways.

τοιαῦτα: in the rare use of pointing forward. Cf. An. v. 8. 7. It has been conjectured that this pron. and τοιάδε at the close of the preceding chap. have changed places.

ἐγκράτειαν: self-control. This virtue shows itself as temperance in respect to the pleasures of sense, as perseverance and endurance where difficulties are to be met. Hence its use with the gen. not only of nouns which denote pleasures, but of those also which denote hardships. In this more comprehensive meaning the term has already been used (i. 5).

πρὸς ἐπιθυμίαν: inapplicable to the last three gens. (ῥίγους, θάλπους, πόνου), and prob. a gloss.

γνοὺς γάρ: the conj. is introductory, and serves to connect its sent. with the preceding τοιαῦτα.

Ἀρίστιππε: of Cyrene in Africa, founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy, which regarded pleasure as the highest good, and pain as the greatest evil. Another conversation with him is recorded iii. 8.

ὅπως ἔσται: fut. ind. in obj. clause, on account of the idea of ‘caring for,’ ‘effecting,’ contained in the foregoing παιδεύειν. G. 1372; H. 885.

ἀρχῆς: for the gen. with verbs of disputing or contesting, see G. 1128; H. 739 a.

βούλει σκοπῶμεν: visne consideremus rem? For the interr. subjv. with βούλει, see G. 1358; H. 866, 3 b.

ἀπὸ τῶν στοιχείων: ab elementis literarum, from the A B C's.

γοῦν: certainly.

οὐκοῦν: in questions, οὔκουν is equivalent to nonne igitur, expecting an affirmative answer; οὐκοῦν (so then) introduces the view of the speaker, giving it an interr. inflection. The latter particle often seems more suited to the gentle irony of Socrates's method, in which he apparently let his interlocutor find out his answer for himself, while really suggesting it to him. So twice just below in 4. Cf. the use of this particle in the examination of Orontas by Cyrus, An. i. 6.

ὥρα: the right time.

εἰκός: sc. ἐστί.

γάρ: see on i.4.9.

τὸ κατεπεῖγον: pressing duty.

προαιρεῖσθαι μᾶλλον: cf. the same pleonasm in the Lat. malle potius.

πότερον: which of them (sc. the two young men). For the double acc. with a verb of teaching, see on i.2.10. Cf. καὶ τοὺς μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ δὲ ταὐτὰ εἴθικεν Hell. vi.1.15, and (with τό and the inf., as here) ἀγαθὸν δὲ ἐθίζειν αὑτὸν καὶ τὸ ἐρημεῖν Eq. ix. 9.

μὴ ἄπρακτα γίγνηται: may not be left undone.

παρά: during, lit. along the course of. G. 1213, 3 (b); H. 802, 3 b.

τῷ ἄρχειν παιδευομένῳ: short form of expression equiv. to τὸν εἰς τὸ ἄρχειν παιδευόμενον in 2. Cf. οἱ εἰς τὴν βασιλικὴν τέχνην παιδευόμενοι 17.

τὸ μαθεῖν, εἴ τι μάθημα: the acquirement of whatever knowledge.

πολύ: sc. μᾶλλον.

τῶν ἄλλων ὄφελος: for the subjective gen. with ὄφελος, see on ὀσμῶν i. 4. 5, and, for the decl. of ὄφελος, same section. Cf. ἀκολάστου γὰρ στρατεύματος οὐδὲν ἡγεῖτο ὄφελος εἶναι An. ii.6.10

ἧττον ἂν δοκεῖ ἁλίσκεσθαι: seems less likely to be captured. For the inf. with ἄν in indirect discourse, cf. γενέσθαι ἄν i. 2. 15.

καὶ μάλα ἔνια δυσωπούμενα: and some (of these) very shy by nature. For the partitive appos., see G. 914; H. 624 d. Cf. ἀκούομεν ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν πόλιν βίᾳ παρεληλυθότας ἐνίους σκηνοῦν (are quartered, some of you) ἐν ταῖς οἰκίαις An. v.5.11

οἱ πέρδικες: cf. Xenophon's description of the bustards (ὠτίδας) as easily caught, πέτονται γὰρ βραχύ, ὥσπερ πέρδικες An. i.5.3

ἐξιστάμενοι τοῦ ἀναλογίζεσθαι: see on τοῦ φρονεῖν ἐξίστησι i. 3. 12.

οὔκουν: at nonne, seems preferable to οὐκοῦν, as being followed by the decisive ἆρ᾽ οὐκ, ἐστίν at the close of the section.

καί: introduces an example. Cf. i.1.7.

τὰς εἱρκτάς: i.e. the women's apartments, γυναικωνῖτις.

κίνδυνος: sc. ἐστί.

νόμος ἀπειλεῖ: acc. to Attic law, the injured husband could either himself punish the adulterer, or accuse him before the Thesmothetae.

ὄντων δὲ πολλῶν τῶν ἀπολυσόντων: although there are so many means to free him from (i.e. gratify). τῶν ἀπολυσόντων is neuter.

ἐν ἀδείᾳ: with impunity.ἆῤ οὐκ ἤδη τοῦτο κτλ.: is not that, then, the act of an utter madman? κακοδαιμονάω, lit. to be possessed by an evil genius. The participle is pred. genitive.

εἶναι μέν, τοὺς δὲ ἔχειν: for this use of μέν, δέ, see on i.4.17.

τὰς ἀναγκαιοτάτας πλείστας πράξεις: the greatest part of the most necessary employments.

ἀνθρώποις: connect with εἶναι.

οὐ τὰς ἐλαχίστας: see on οὐχ ἥκιστα i. 2. 23.

ἀγυμνάστως ἔχειν: are untrained.

δοκεῖ: sc. τοῦτο.

καὶ ταῦτα: sc. ψύχη καὶ θάλπη.

φέρειν: const. with ἄσκειν, and for the inf., see on μελετῶντα καρτερεῖν i. 6. 7.

ἐγκρατεῖς: see on 1.

εἰ τάττομεν: “if we include,” a good example of the simple logical condition. G. 1390; H. 893.

τοὺς μηδ᾽ ἀντιποιησομένους τοῦ ἄρχειν: those who will not even contend for high office. For the gen. τοῦ ἄρχειν, see on ἀρχῆς 1, and for the attrib. participle, cf. i.2.43.

τάξομεν: distinguish the simple fut. ind. in apod. from the interr. subjv., shall we include.

τούτων ἑκατέρου τοῦ φύλου τὴν τάξιν: the respective position of each of these classes of men, lit. the rank of each class of these men. The two individuals are now identified with the classes of which they are types. For the position of the dem. pronominal adj., see G. 974; H. 673 a. Cf. ἐφ᾽ ἑκατέρῳ τῷ κέρᾳ Thuc. v. 67.

ἔγωγε (sc. ἐσκεψάμην): yes, indeed.

ἀνθρώπου: for the pred. gen. of characteristic, see on γνώμης i. 1. 9.

τὸ μὴ ἀρκεῖν τοῦτο: sc. αὐτῷ. We might have expected ἀρκεῖσθαι (contentum esse) τούτῳ, ἀλλὰ προσαναθέσθαι, but it is common in Greek for a dependent word of one clause to become the subj. in the next, as here, where αὐτόν is to be supplied as subj. of προσαναθέσθαι.

ἑαυτῷ μὲν ἐλλείπειν, τούτου δίκην ὑπέχειν: a compound subj. as in 6, here summed up by τοῦτο.

τοῦτο πῶς ... ἐστί: the thought stated as a belief at the beginning of this passage (πάνυ ... ἄφρονος ... εἶναι) is repeated at its close in the form of a question. See on i. 4. 13.

ἐγώ τε γάρ, αἵ τε πόλεις: for as I, so also the states. See on i. 3. 1.—τοὺς μὲν βουλομένους κτλ.: with these words Aristippus indicates the position and function of a statesman who, at the demand of the state, must lay on himself and others heavy burdens: and, in rejecting this for himself, Aristippus indirectly gives utterance to the view afterward developed by his pupil Epicurus. Cf. τὸ μακάριον καὶ ἄφθαρτον οὔτε αὐτὸ πράγματα ἔχει, οὔτε ἄλλῳ παρέχει Diog. Laert. x. 39, words which Cicero renders “quod aeternum beatumque est, id nec habere ipsum negoti quicquam nec exhibere alteriDe Nat. Deor. i. 17. The use of the dat. αὑτοῖς with ἔχειν may be explained by the analogy of the following ἄλλοις.

οὕτως: i.e. as previously described.

ἂν παιδεύσας: “would educate and.”

μέντοι: a stronger adversative than δέ.

ῥᾷστα: for the strengthened superlative, see H. 651.

βούλει, σκεψώμεθα: see on 1.

ὧν: for the attraction, see G. 1031; H. 994; ὅπως οὖν ἔσεσθε ἄνδρες ἄξιοι τῆς ἐλευθερίας ἧς κέκτησθε An. i.7.3

Πέρσαι μὲν ἄρχουσιν, ἄρχονται δὲ Σύροι: obs. the chiastic order. In the two following sents. the more natural order is followed.

Σύροι, Φρύγες, Λύδοι: purposely mentioned, as names of races despised by the Greeks.

Μαιῶται: a people near the Sea of Azof.

ἐν οἷς καὶ αὐτὸς εἶ: “to come a little nearer home.”

οἱ κρατοῦντες, οἱ κρατούμενοι: i.e. the more powerful states and their tributary allies. Under the leadership of Pericles, Athens had developed to its utmost the system of a central power with many dependent allies. For an account of it, see Schömann, Antiq. of Greece, i. passim.

αὖ: on the other hand, with reference to the beginning of 8, εἰς τὴν δουλείαν being used for εἰς τὴν τῶν δούλων τάξιν.

τούτων: const. as a gen. of place with μέση, which here is equivalent to ἐν μέσῳ between.

ἥν: for the cognate acc. with verbs of motion, see G. 1057; H. 712.

εὐδαιμονίαν: for true happiness described as the reward of virtue, cf. 33. See Introd. § 22.

μέν, μέντοι: as in 9. Cf. iv.4.7.

οὕτως μηδὲ δἰ ἀνθρώπων: sc. φέροι.

ἴσως ἄν τι λέγοις: “perhaps there would be something in what you say.” The opposite is οὐδὲν λέγειν. See Kr. Spr. 51. 16. 13.

εἰ ἀξιώσεις: for the fut. ind. expressing present intention, cf. i.6.3.

μηδὲ ἑκὼν θεραπεύσεις: and do not intend to yield voluntary allegiance.

καὶ κοινῇ καὶ ἰδίᾳ: “both states and individuals.”

κλαίοντας καθίσταντες: “by bringing them to grief.” Cf. our phrase ‘come to grief,’ for any disastrous result. Cf., also, Xenophon's use of the similar κλαίοντας καθίζειν in Sym. iii. 11; Cyr. ii. 2. 15.

δούλοις: as slaves. Cf. τεκμηρίῳ i. 2. 49, τροφῇ iii. 11. 6.

σπειράντων: for the omission of the art. with subst. participles, see on μαινόμενος i. 3. 11.—τόν τε σῖτον τέμνοντες κτλ.: cf. the proceedings in the early years of the Peloponnesian war, when a Spartan army under Archidamus regularly ravaged the Attic plain. For the attrib. participle used substantively, see on τοὺς ἀντιποιησομένους 7.

πολιορκοῦντες: vexantes, besieging.

πείσωσιν: euphemistic for “compel.” Cf. ἐπείσθησαν ἀνάγκῃ An. vii.7.29, φοβῶν ἔπεισε Cyr. v. 4. 51. For the subjv. in a temporal clause, see G. 1465; H. 921, and cf. 33; iii. 5. 6.

καὶ ἰδίᾳ αὖ: transition from states to individuals.

ξένος πανταχοῦ: “a citizen of the world.”

τοῦτο μέντοι κτλ.: that is certainly a clever dodge you suggest. πάλαισμα lit. a trick of wrestling. For the pred. use of δεινόν, see H. 618.

ἐξ οὗ: sc. χρόνου.

Σίνις, Σκείρων, Προκρούστης: three famous robbers, killed by Theseus. Cf. Plut. Theseus 8. The way in which Procrustes treated his guests has become proverbial, and has given us the word ‘procrustean.’ Cf. οὗτος δὲ τοὺς παριόντας ὁδοιπόρους ἠνάγκασεν ἐπί τινος κλίνης ἀναπίπτειν καὶ τῶν μὲν μακροτέρων τὰ προέχοντα μέρη (the projecting portions) τοῦ σώματος ἀπέκοπτε, τῶν δ᾽ ἐλαττόνων τοὺς πόδας προέκρουεν (hammered out) Diod. Sic. iv. 59.

ἀλλὰ νῦν: i.e. when there are no longer such robbers.

τοῖς ἀναγκαίοις καλουμένοις: in general, οἱ ἀναγκαῖοι means all who are intimately associated with us; here, however, like the Lat. necessarii, the phrase is equivalent to kinsmen, hence the addition of καλουμένοις.

βοηθούς: pred. accusative.

οἷς ἀμύνονται: with which they try to defend themselves. For the pres. of attempted action, see G. 1255; H. 825.

τοὺς ἀδικοῦντας: for the acc. with certain verbs of which the equivalents are intr. in Eng., see G. 1049; H. 712.

ἔχων: although you have.

τοιοῦτος: i.e. without home or friends.

οἵοις: for the pl. after a sing. antec. suggesting a class, see H. 629 a.

διὰ τὸ ξένος εἶναι: for the articular inf., see on i.1.12.

: sc. θαρρεῖς.

οἷος λυσιτελεῖν: see on οἵους τέμνειν i. 4. 6.— τίς γὰρ ἂν ἐθέλοι κτλ.: a question which seems to support the supposition attributed to Aristippus, namely, that as a slave he would be of no account: its real application is found in the following section.

ἆρα οὐ: belongs to each of the three following questions. For the interr., see on i.3.11.

κλέπτειν: for the inf. with verbs of hindrance, see on πορεύεσθαι i. 6. 6.

ἀλλὰ γάρ: introduces (like at enim) an objection, γάρ being explained by some omitted thought like “an objection presents itself.”

τί: adv. accusative.

πεινήσουσι: for this and the following fut. inds., cf. ἀξιώσεις 12.

τι ἄλλο: to be read together, wherein else. After ἄλλο γε , acc. to Eng. idiom, a ὅτι might be expected, which is not necessary in Greek. Cf. τί γὰρ ἄλλο κινδυνεύσεις ii. 3. 17. “The difference between willing and unwilling submission to indignities is only this, that he who submits willingly incurs, in addition to his suffering, the charge of folly.”

Σωκράτης ἔφη: see on i.2.9.

τῶν τοιούτων (sc. λυπηρῶν): part. gen. with τὰ ἑκούσια.

: in so far as, quatenus.

ὁπότε βούλοιτο: for the opt. in a rel. temporal clause by assimilation, see on i.5.4; ii. 9. 2.

πίοι: without ἄν, which is to be supplied from the preceding φάγοι ἄν.

ὁπόταν βούληται: obs. the ἄν retained with the subjv. in a rel. temporal clause, and omitted with the opt. (ὁπότε βούλοιτο).

πονῶν: for the supplementary participle with verbs expressive of being pleased, see G. 1580; H. 983.

ἆθλα: praemia, rewards.

μικροῦ τινος ἄξιά ἐστι: have some small value. For the indef. pron. added to adjs., see on δεινήν τινα i. 3. 12, and, for the gen. of value with ἄξιος, G. 1135; H. 753 f.

τούτους: repeats and emphasizes τοὺς δέ. Cf. iii.5.8, 7. 4.

ἀγαμένους ἑαυτούς: well-pleased with themselves.

ἐκ τοῦ παραχρῆμα ἡδοναί: pleasures of the moment, i.e. easilywon enjoyments (as shown by the contrasted αἱ διὰ καρτερίας ἐπιμέλειαι). Cf. τὰς ἐγγυτάτω ἡδονάς iv. 5. 10.

σώματι, ψυχῇ: for the omission of the generic art., see H. 660.

αἱ διὰ καρτερίας ἐπιμέλειαι: for the use of the prep. with its case as an attrib. adj. (so ἐκ τοῦ παραχρῆμα above), see G. 952; H. 600; and for διά with the gen. denoting manner, cf. διὰ μέθης Plato Sym. 176 E.

ἔργων: results. For the gen. with verbs of attaining and touching, see on i.4.12.

Ἡσίοδος: the quotation is from his Works and Days 287 ff.

καὶ ἴλαδον: and that in abundance.

ἔστιν: why this accent?

λείη: cf. the Lat. lēvis.

ναίει: sc. κακότης.

οἶμος: seems first masc. (μακρός), and then fem. (ῥηιδίη). It is more commonly fem., like other words meaning way, e.g., ὁδός, κέλευθος, ἀτραπός, etc. Possibly the poet had one of these in mind with ῥηιδίη. See G. 194, 1; H. 152 c.

χαλεπή περ ἐοῦσα: sc. τὸ πρῶτον.

Ἐπίχαρμος: a comic poet from Cos, who flourished in Syracuse about 500 B.C. The two verses are ‘trochaic tetrameter catalectic.’ G. 1651; H. 1083.

τῶν πόνων: for the gen. of price, see on i.6.11.

καὶ ... ἔχῃς: the passage is prob. interpolated, as τόπος was not used in Xenophon's time to denote a ‘place’ in an author's works. See L. & S. s.v. τόπος I, 4.

μῶσο: from μάω.

Πρόδικος: of Ceos, a contemporary of Socrates and Xenophon, the latter of whom may have heard him recite his apologue of Hercules at Thebes, in the course of a professional tour. Socrates spoke of him with respect, and in Plato several times calls himself a hearer of Prodicus. The σύγγραμμα περὶ Ἡρακλέους was a part of a larger work entitled Ὧραι.

ἐπιδείκνυται: exhibits, “recites.” The exhibition or ‘show’ speeches of the Sophists were generally called ἐπιδείξεις.

ὧδέ πως: see on τοιάδε τις i. 1. 1.

ἐκ παίδων: from childhood, concrete for abstract. For the accent of παίδων, see G. 128; H. 172 a.

ὁδόν: for the case, see on ἥν 11.—ἐξελθόντα κτλ.: cf. “nam quod Herculem Prodicus dicit, ut est apud Xenophontem,—exisse in solitudinem atque ibi sedentem diu secum multumque dubitasse etc.Cic. de Off. i. 32. 118.

τράπηται: for the interr. subjv. retained in indir. question, see G. 1490; H. 933.

ἰδεῖν: for the limiting inf. with adjs., see G. 1528; H. 952. Cf. i.6.9; iii. 8. 8.

ἐσθῆτι: const. with κεκοσμημένην.

τεθραμμένην εἰς πολυσαρκίαν τε καὶ ἁπαλότητα: pampered up to plumpness and delicacy.κεκαλλωπισμένην δὲ τὸ μὲν χρῶμα κτλ.: this sent. does not correspond to the previous one, either in the order of the clauses or in the words themselves. Xenophon seems often to have avoided complete uniformity in the parallel clauses of a rhetorical period; though it certainly might have been justified here, as being quite in keeping with the character of professional declamations, which abounded in antitheses.

τοῦ ὄντος, τῆς φύσεως: equivalent to ἦν, ἐπεφύκει. See Kr. Spr. 47. 27. 2.

ὥστε δοκεῖν φαίνεσθαι: cf. ἐκπλαγέντες τῷ δόξαι μέγαν τε καὶ καλὸν φανῆναι τὸν Κῦρον Cyr. viii. 3. 14.

ὀρθοτέραν: more erect, in order to appear taller. Tallness was esteemed by the Greeks. Cf., on the passage, ἰδών ποτε αὐτὴν ἐντετριμμένην πολλῷ ψιμυθίῳ (white lead), ὅπως λευκοτέρα ἔτι δοκοίη εἶναι ἦν, πολλῇ δὲ ἐγχούσῃ (red dye, from the plant anchusa), ὅπως ἐρυθροτέρα φαίνοιτο τῆς ἀληθείας, ὑποδήματα δ᾽ ἔχουσαν ὑψηλά, ὅπως μείζων δοκοίη εἶναι ἐπεφύκει Oec. X. 2, where Ischomachus is describing his youthful wife.

ὥρα: youthful beauty, with art. omitted.

διαλάμποι: for the potential opt. in rel. final clauses, see G. 1367; H. 937 a.

ἐπισκοπεῖν: looked, to see if etc.

Ἡρακλέους: for the gen. with advs. of place, see on θείου i. 6. 10.

τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον: i.e. without altering her pace.

ἀποροῦντα: for the supplementary participle in indirect discourse, see on i.2.16.

ὁδὸν ἐπὶ τὸν βίον: path in life.

τράπῃ: for the mode, cf τράπηται 21.

ποιησάμενος: participle of manner, with ellipsis of τὴν ὁδὸν τράπῃ. Cf. νομίσαν i. 2. 42.

οὐδενός: for the gen. with verbal adjs., cf. i.2.1, 63; 6. 8.

πολέμων: for the case, cf. i.1.11.

φροντιεῖς: for the ‘Attic’ future, see G. 665, 3; H. 425.

σκοπούμενος διέσῃ: you shall all the time be considering. For the supplementary participle with verbs of continuing, see G. 1580; H. 981.

σιτίον, ποτόν: in appos. with τί.

εὕροις: potential opt. in indirect discourse.

παιδικοῖς: favorites.

σπάνεως ἀφ᾽ ὧν: equivalent to σπάνεως τούτων, ἀφ̓ ὧν.

οὐ φόβος (sc. ἐστί): no ground for anxiety.

τό: connect with πορίζεσθαι.— πονοῦντα, ταλαιπωροῦντα: agree with the omitted subj. of πορίζεσθαι.

οἷς, τούτοις: for , τούτοις with omitted indef. antec. of the relative. See G. 1030; H. 996 b. For the assimilation, see on ὧν 10.

χρήσῃ: “shall enjoy.”

πανταχόθεν: the position is emphatic.

ὄνομα δέ: for δέ, see on i.3.13.

δέ: for the pronominal art., see on i.2.33.

ὑποκοριζόμενοι: nicknaming. The word properly means ‘to talk baby talk,’ from κόρος, ‘child,’—hence, ‘to give pet names,’ and so, in a bad sense, ‘to nickname.’

καταμαθοῦσα; “gauged.”

εἰ τράποιο: less confident than the ἐὰν [τραπῇ] of Κακία in 23.

ἂν γενέσθαι: see on ἂν κινηθῆναι i. 1. 14.

ἐπ᾽ ἀγαθοῖς: for good actions, i.e. those which Hercules would perform under her guidance; ‘lit with the luster shed by valorous deeds’ (Dakyns).

προοιμίοις ἡδονῆς: promises of pleasure, like those in the speech of Κακία.

ἀγαθῶν καὶ καλῶν: const. as preds. with ὄντων.

ἵλεως: see on i.1.9 fin.

βούλει, ἐθέλεις, ἐπιθυμεῖς: prob. no difference in meaning is intended.

θεραπευτέον: see on i. 2. 34. Note the double meaning of θεραπεύω with θεούς and γῆν, like the Lat. colere.

αὐτάς τε: the τέ is added, because the writer had in mind μαθητέον for both clauses, with some such obj. in the second as τὴν χρῆσιν αὐτῶν, instead of which, by a slight change of construction we have ὅπως αὐταῖς δεί χρῆσθαι ἀσκητέον. The whole idea is sufficiently rendered by our “military science and tactics.” εἰ δέ: after the sevenfold repetition of εἴτε, the emphatic concluding sent. is introduced with εἰ δέ. Cf. the Lat. si vero after sive.

τῇ γνώμῃ ὑπηρετεῖν: for when the body obeys the reason, it will do nothing which will interfere with its own best development. Cicero, in his version of this passage (“exercendum corpus et ita afficiendum est, ut oboedire consilio rationique possitDe Off. i. 23. 79), seems to have connected τῇ γνώμῃ ὑπηρετεῖν with δυνατός, rather than with what follows.

πόνοις, ἱδρῶτι: dats. of accompaniment. Cf. ‘in the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread’ Gen. iii. 19.

γυνὴ αὕτη: that woman there. So the Lat. ista femina.

εὐφροσύνας: pleasures, in strong contrast to εὐδαιμονίαν. Observe the elaborate antitheses in the two clauses, and note that Vice usurps the nobler word happiness, conceding to Virtue only pleasures as the reward of toil and self-denial.

ὁδόν (after βραχεῖαν): see on 21.

Ἀρετή: that Virtue has not been previously mentioned by name is a refinement of the allegory, which has left it to the hearer or reader to identify her by her description at entrance, and by her words.

τλῆμον: wretched being, uttered with righteous indignation.

τί δέ: see on ὄνομα δέ 26.

ἥτις: you who. See H. 699 a.

οὐδὲ ἀναμένεις: cf. Sym. iv. 41. “Not only will you not do anything to secure true enjoyment, but you will not wait for the desire (hunger, thirst, etc.) of enjoyment to come of itself.”

πεινῆν, διψῆν: for the special form of contraction, see G. 496; H. 412.

μηχανωμένη, παρασκευάζῃ: note the change of construction. The retention of the participle is prob. due to the influence of the two preceding participles, the finite const. being afterward resumed.

χιόνα: the use of snow to cool wine, sherbet, etc. is common in southern Europe. For the thought, cf. i.6.5.

στρωμνάς: beds, mattresses.

μαλακάς: pred. adj., to be connected with παρασκευάζῃ. G. 971, 972; H. 618.— [τὰς κλίνας καί]: prob. an interpolation, as the possession of couches could not be a subject for reproach.

ὑπόβαθρα: rockers. Cf. οὐ γὰρ ἐκ χρυσοῦ καὶ ἐλέφαντος κατεσκευασμέναι κλῖναι καὶ πορφυροῖ τάπητες οὔτε ὑπόβαθρα καὶ παστάδες (colonnades) ὕπνους ποιοῦσιν, ἀλλὰ ἔργα καὶ νόμιμοι πόνοι καὶ τὸ τῆς φύσεως αὐτῆς ἀναγκαῖον Teles apud Stobaeum Flor. 93. 31.

ποιῇς: see on τράπηται 21.

γυναιξί: see on δούλοις 12.

ὑβρίζουσα, κατακοιμίζουσα: the participles expand and explain the preceding οὕτω. Cf. ἐμβολὴν ὧδε ποιοῦνται, ἅμα μὲν λαθεῖν πειρώμενοι, ἅμα δὲ φθάσαι An. iv.1.4

ἐκ θεῶν: from the company of gods.

ἐπαίνου ἑαυτῆς: praise of yourself. For the use of the third pers. refl. instead of the second, see G. 995; H. 686 a. For the thought, cf. “Themistoclem dixisse aiunt, cum ex eo quaereretur quod acroama aut cuius vocem libentissime audiret: Eius, a quo sua virtus optime praedicareturCic. pro Arch. 9. 32.

εὖ φρονῶν: in his senses.

θιάσου: properly an assemblage of worshipers: here scornfully applied to the followers of Κακία.

οἳ νέοι: as if preceded by θιασωτῶν, instead of θιάσου, a const. κατὰ σύνεσιν. So αἱ πόλεις, παύσοντες in ii. 2. 3.

λιπαροὶ τρεφόμενοι: for the pred. adj. used in adverbial sense, see H. 619.

ἀποθέμενοι: laying up. Cf. with this description Shakspeare's Seven Ages of Man in As You Like It, and the imagery of Ecclesiastes xii.

σύνειμι μέν, σύνειμι δέ: ‘anaphora,’ as in i. 1. 2, 5. 3.

καλόν οὔτε ... οὔτε ... γίγνεται: acc. to Greek usage, we should expect an οὐδέν before καλόν.

οἷς: for παρ᾽ οἷς. So αἷς σύνει for ἐν αἷς σύνει iii. 7. 3. Κακία receives indeed honor, but only from those παῤ οἷς τιμᾶσθαι οὐ προσήκει.

συνεργός: sc. οὖσα.— συλλήπτρια: an assistant.

κοινωνός: a sharer.

ἀπράγμων: untroubled, opposed to περιθέουσα in 30.

ἀνέχονται: they hold out.

εὖ πράττοντες: succeeding in.ὅταν δ᾽ ἂν ἔλθῃ τὸ πεπρωμένον τέλος κτλ.: cf. the concluding lines of Bryant's Thanatopsis.

ὑμνούμενοι θάλλουσι: “they are immortalized in song.” Cf. “Harmodius in ore et Aristogito, Lacedaemonius Leonidas, Thebanus Epamin ondas vigentCic. Tusc. Disp. i. 49. 116.

τοιαῦτα σοι: for the ‘asyndeton,’ see on i.1.9.

διώκει: unusual in this sense, which is a common one in English. Cf. the Lat. persequi.

τὴν ὑπ᾽ Ἀρετῆς παίδευσιν: for ὑπό and the gen. with a verbal noun, see Kr. Spr. 68. 43. 2. Cf. ἥδεσθαι τῇ ὑπὸ πάντων τιμῇ Cyr. iii. 3. 2.

γνώμας: thoughts.

ἐνθυμουμένῳ: giving heed.

πειρᾶσθαί τι ... φροντίζειν: to strive to pay some attention to those things also (καί) which belong to the later portion of your life.

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hide References (21 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (21):
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.5.3
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.7.3
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.6.10
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.1.4
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.5.11
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 7.7.29
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.1.15
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.1.11
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.1.7
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.2.1
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.2.43
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.6.3
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.6.5
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.6.9
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 3.5.8
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 4.4.7
    • Cicero, For Archias, 9
    • Cicero, de Natura Deorum, 1.17
    • Cicero, Tusculanae Disputationes, 1.49
    • Cicero, De Officiis, 1.23
    • Cicero, De Officiis, 1.32
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