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Socrates gives good counsel to Aristarchus, who complains of the difficulty of supporting a large family of dependent female relatives. After advising him to give to them some useful employment, Socrates shows that honest work is not beneath the dignity of a freeman. By this, we gain for the home prosperity, mutual appreciation, and happiness.
τὰς ἀπορίας, τὰς μέν, τὰς δέ: acc. of the whole, followed by its parts, in apposition. Cf. i.2.60. γνώμῃ: “by counsel,” as shown in chaps. 7, 8, contrasted with διδάσκειν κατὰ δύναμιν ἀλλήλοις ἐπαρκεῖν, in chaps. 9, 10. ἃ σύνοιδα αὐτῷ: what I know of him. συνειδέναι τί τινι is to know anything with another, then to know anything of another. Cf. ἵνα τούτῳ μὲν ταῦτα συνειδῶμεν in order that we may know this of him Plato Prot. 348 B. Ἀρίσταρχον: otherwise unknown.
ἀλλὰ μήν: yes indeed. ἐστασίασεν ἡ πόλις: for the revolution in Athens at the close of the Peloponnesian war, cf. Hell. ii. 3. 4; Grote, Hist. of Greece, c. lxv. ἀδελφιδαῖ: brothers' or sisters' daughters, nieces. τοὺς ἐλευθέρους: masc., as including himself. λαμβάνομεν: we are getting. Cf. i. 3. 5. τῷ ἄστει: the city proper, as distinguished from the country. πρότερον, ἤ: with no temporal meaning, more likely, than. GMT. 654. τοὺς οἰκείους περιορᾶν ἀπολλυμένους: to allow one's relatives to starve.
τί ποτέ ἐστιν: how in the world does it happen? Κεράμων: otherwise unknown. σὺ δὲ πολλούς: we might expect σὺ δὲ ὀλίγους, for the fourteen ἐλεύθεροι were very few in comparison with the immense number of slaves supported by rich men like Ceramon; but the phrase may be a simple repetition to maintain the parallelism with the πολλοὺς τρέφων of the preceding clause.
παρὰ σοί: in your house. Cf. Lat. apud, Ger. bei, Fr. chez.— νὴ Δία: the affirmative formula here is perplexing; of the various explanations offered, that suggested by Kühner's paraphrase seems most reasonable, viz. “Aye, truly, it is a shame that we should live in such poverty; for I have to support gentlewomen, whose standard of living is, and ought to be, different from that of slaves.”
ἆρ᾽ οὖν: introduces an apparently neutral question. τί δὲ ἄρτοι: well, how about bread? ἱμάτια κτλ.: the ἱμάτιον (toga) was a square cloak covering the whole body. Under this was worn the tunic (χιτών), of which χιτωνίσκος (tunicula) is a diminutive. The χλαμύς was a short military mantle; the ἐξωμίς, a sort of sleeveless short tunic worn by slaves and the lower classes generally. See Guhl and Koner, Life of the Greeks and Romans, p. 160 ff. ἔπειτα: then. So εἶτα in 6.
λειτουργεῖν: i.e. to perform those public services which the state required from its richer citizens, such as furnishing and training choruses for dramatic performances, and fitting out triremes for the use of the state. For an account of these and the less important ‘liturgies,’ see Schömann, Antiq. of Greece, p. 459 ff. For the derivation of the word, see Lex. s. v. λειτουργός. Κολλυτεύς: of the Attic deme Collytus. ὠνούμενοι ἔχουσιν: purchase and keep. ὥστ᾽ ἀναγκάζειν: so that they can compel. ἃ καλῶς ἔχει: “whatever is desirable,” sc. ἐργάζεσθαι. ἐγὼ δέ (sc. ἔχω): while I have with me.
ἔπειτα: well, then. ἄλλο: for its position, see on ii.1.17. ἅ, τούτων: see on τούτων ii. 4. 7. τὴν ἀργίαν, τὴν ἀμέλειαν, ὠφέλιμα ὄντα: for the neut. pred. after fem. or masc. substs., see on χρησιμώτερον ii. 3. 1.
ἔμαθον: placed at the beginning for emphasis, and also in order to bring πότερον next to ὡς. ὡς: belongs to both ὄντα and ποιήσουσαι. ὄντα, ποιήσουσαι: for the participles in different cases, connected by οὔτε, οὔτε, see on ii.2.5. ὠφελησόμεναι: fut. mid. in pass. sense. ποτέρως: introducing the double question, but not part of it. See on i. 6. 15. ἀργοῦντες (in line 66): conditional.—εἰ ἀργοῦντες βουλεύοιντο κτλ.: “if they should listlessly plan for success.”
ἀλλὰ καὶ νῦν μέν: “nay, more, as things now are.” κίνδυνος (sc. ἐστί) ἀπέχθειαν γίγνεσθαι: for the inf. with κίνδυνος (a less common const. than μή with the subjv.), see G. 1521; H. 952. ἐὰν προστατήσῃς ὅπως: if you will provide that. Cf. καὶ κελεύουσι προστατῆσαι λαβόντα χρήματα ὅπως ἐκπλεύσῃ ἡ στρατιά An. v.6.21 τὴν ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνων: sc. εὐεργεσιῶν. αὐξήσετε: pl., as χάρις implies a mutual relation between the giver and the recipients.
εἰ μὲν τοίνυν ἔμελλον: if, to be sure, they were going. προαιρετέον ἦν: without ἄν, like the impfs. ἔδει, ἐχρῆν, and others denoting propriety or obligation. See on i. 3. 3. ὡς ἔοικε: sc. from your account. πάντες: everybody. μὴ ὄκνει, καὶ ὑπακούσονται: see on ἐγχείρει, καὶ ὑπακούσεται ii. 3. 16.
ἀλλά: “well, now,” a lively expression of assent. πρόσθεν μέν, νῦν δέ: although formerly, now however. Only the second clause is introduced by ὥστε. For μέν equivalent to while, see on i.4.17. οὐ προσιέμην δανείσασθαι: I would have nothing to do with borrowing. ὃ ἂν λάβω, ἕξω. For the retention of the direct forms in indirect discourse, see on ἐποίει ii. 6. 13. εἰς ἔργων ἀφορμήν: to provide materials for their work. ὑπομενεῖν: that I will bring myself. αὐτὸ ποιῆσαι: i.e. δανείζεσθαι.
ἐργαζόμεναι ἠρίστων κτλ.: the informal nature of the ἄριστον enabled them to take it while at their work; the δεῖπνον, as the chief meal of the day, was eaten at the close of the day's work. For an account of the Greek meals, see Becker, Charicles (Eng. transl.), p. 310 ff. ἑαυτούς: for the gender, see on ἐλευθέρους 2. ἐφίλουν, ἠγάπα: sc. respectively αὐτόν and αὐτάς. ἀργὸν ἐσθίειν: “ate the bread of idleness.”
εἶτα: as in i. 2. 26. ὄϊν: the Ionic form, generally used by Xenophon instead of the Attic contracted οἶν. Cf. iii.2.1; iv. 3. 10. θαυμαστὸν ποιεῖς, ὅς: you are acting strangely, to. For the causal rel., see on ὃς κελεύεις ii. 3. 15. ὅ τι ἂν μὴ λάβωμεν: unless we get it.
ναὶ μὰ Δία, “yes, of course he does.” καὶ ὑμᾶς αὐτάς: i.e. you too, as well as my master's other possessions. ἐπεί: for.— μὴ ἀπόλησθε: subjv. retained, to express vividly the object of fear. Cf. ὀκνοίην μὲν ἄν, μὴ ἡμᾶς καταδύσῃ An. i.3.17 ἀντὶ κυνός: in place of (“as good as”) a dog. Cf. ἐγὼ γὰρ ἀντὶ τοῦ λέοντός εἰμί σοι Ar. Knights 1043.
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