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The commander of cavalry must himself see that his horses are in good condition. His men must be trained in riding and in prompt obedience. The leader must above all be able to do anything he requires of his men; and must know how to stimulate by words the ambition of his subordinates.


ἱππαρχεῖν: in Athens, two commanders of cavalry (ἵππαρχοι) were chosen in addition to the ten generals of infantry. Xenophon has left us a special treatise (Ἱππαρχικός) on the duties of the hipparchs.

οὐ γὰρ δή: for surely not.

τοῦ ἐλαύνειν: sc. ἕνεκα. For the articular inf., see on i.1.12.

ἱπποτοξόται: a body of mounted archers, 200 in number, thrown out as light skirmishers in advance of the main army.

τοῦ γνωσθῆναι: for the sake of becoming known.

ἐπεὶ καί: cf. ii.8.5.


ἀλλ᾽ ἆρα: sc. ἱππαρχεῖν ἐπεθύμησας.

ἂν παραδοῦναι: sc. εἰ ἱππαρχοίης.

πού: I suppose, with a touch of irony. Cf. ὅτι μὲν γὰρ ἐκ τῆς χειρὸς δεῖ ῥίπτεσθαι τὸ σπέρμα καὶ σύ που οἶσθα Oec. xvii. 7.

ἀμβατῶν: by ‘apocope’ from ἀναβατῶν. So ἀνάμβατος Cyr. iv. 5. 46. See G. 53; H. 84 D.

γὰρ οὖν: yes, of course. For γάρ, see on i.4.9.


τοῦτο (after ἀλλά): connect with τὸ ἔργον.

ἰδίᾳ: “for himself.”


οἱ μέν, οἱ δέ: the well-to-do citizens of Athens were expected to serve in the cavalry, and to furnish their own horses. See Gow, Companion to School Classics, p. 123.

καλῶς τε λέγεις, καὶ πειράσομαι: cf. ἀλλὰ δέχομαί τε καὶ τοῦτο ἔστω An. i.8.17


ἀναβατικωτέρους: cf. πρῶτον μὲν τοὺς ἱππέας ἀσκητέον, ὅπως ἐπὶ τοὺς ἵππους ἀναπηδᾶν (to leap on) δύνωνται Hipp. i. 5.

καταπέσοι: the Greek rider sat without stirrups, on the horse's bare back; and hence had to reckon with the danger of falling off, in case of attack. In the encouraging speech which Xenophon makes to his men (An. iii.2.19), he emphasizes this danger as a weak point of the enemy's cavalry.


τὴν ἄμμον: sandy ground, the race-track.

πειράσῃ ... γίγνονται: cf. δεύτερον δέ, ὅπως ἐν παντοίοις χωρίοις ἱππάζεσθαι δυνήσονται. καὶ γὰρ οἱ πολέμιοι ἄλλοτε ἐν ἀλλοίοις τόποις γίγνονται (appear) Hipp. i. 5.

βέλτιον: refers to the second of the two suggestions.


τοῦ βάλλειν: obj. gen. with ἐπιμέλειαν.

ὡς πλείστους: subj. of βάλλειν. Cf. Hipp. i. 6.

ἀλλὰ νῦν γε: like at in Lat., ἀλλά sometimes follows a cond. sent. in the sense of yet at any rate. G. 1422; H. 1046, 2 (a).


πείθωνται: cf. ἐκ τούτων παρασκευαστέον, ὅπως εὐπειθεῖς οἱ ἄνδρες ωσιν Hipp. i. 7.


On the passage, cf. Hipp. iv. 4.

ἐκεῖνο: see on ii.4.1.


εἰς τὸ πείθεσθαι αὐτοὺς ἐμοί: to secure me their obedience.

ἐάν γε: yes, if.

διδάξω: for the interr. subjv., see on i.2.36.—On the passage, cf. εἴς γε μὴν τὸ εὐπειθεῖς εἶναι τοὺς ἀρχομένους μέγα μὲν καὶ τὸ λόγῳ διδάσκειν ὅσα ἀγαθὰ ἔνι ἐν τῷ πειθαρχεῖν, μέγα δὲ καὶ τὸ ἔργῳ [κατὰ τὸν νόμον] πλεονεκτεῖν μὲν ποιεῖν τοὺς εὐτάκτους, μειονεκτεῖν δὲ ἐν πᾶσι τοὺς ἀτακτοῦντας Hipp. i. 24.


ἐπιμελεῖσθαι δεῖν καὶ τοῦ λέγειν δύνασθαι: should cultivate also the ability to speak. For the articular inf. with ἐπιμελεῖσθαι, see GMT. 793, 798.

ὅσα τε: correlative with καὶ εἴ τι ἄλλο.

νόμῳ: more, “as laid down by law and custom.”

ζῆν: “to order our lives,” in the best sense.

διὰ λόγου: cf. ἑρμηνείαν, δἰ ἧς iv. 3. 12.

μάθημα: i.e. what one is impelled by his own taste to learn.

ἄριστα: adverb.

τὰ σπουδαιότατα: matters of greatest importance.


χορὸς εἷς: contrasted with οὐδεὶς ἄλλοθεν οὐδαμόθεν. “None of the numerous choruses sent by the various states can compete with the one sent from Athens.” Every four years festival delegations, including choruses, were sent to Delos from the different states of Hellas, in honor of Apollo and Artemis.

εὐανδρία: “a collection of finelooking men.” The handsomest men were chosen to head the procession. So, also, at the Panathenaic festival, the θαλλοφόροι (bearers of the sacred olive branch) were chosen from among the finest-looking old men. Cf. θαλλοφόρους γὰρ τῇ Ἀθηνᾷ τοὺς καλοὺς γέροντας ἐκλέγονται Sym. iv. 17.


ἀλλὰ μὴν κτλ.: the thought of the passage is, that the Athenians excel all other Greeks in sweetness of voice (εὐφωνίᾳ, referring back to χορός) and in physical beauty (σωμάτων μεγέθει καὶ ῥώμῃ, referring to εὐανδρία), and, above all, in ambition (φιλοτιμίᾳ), the motive to all noble action. Cf. iii.5.3.


ὡς: uncommon after οἶμαι, ὅτι being the usual conjunction. Cf. Hell. vi. 3. 12.

τούτῳ: anticipative, referring to ὅπλων τε καὶ ἵππων παρασκευῇ κτλ. See G. 1005; H. 696 a.

διενέγκοιεν: sc. οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι.


ὄκνει: delay.

ὠφελήσῃ: fut. mid. for passive. Cf. ii.7.8.

ἀλλὰ νὴ Δία: see on ii.7.11.

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hide References (5 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (5):
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.8.17
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 3.2.19
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 2.7.8
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 2.8.5
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 3.5.3
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