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1-20. How well Socrates knew how to bring to their senses young men who were filled with conceit of their fancied wisdom, is illustrated in his talks with Euthydēmus. This youth wished to become a statesman, but had no idea of going through any preliminary course of study or training. Socrates shows him that he needs this, since he has no clear ideas even about what is just and unjust, which surely a statesman must understand.
Εὐθύδημον: cf. i.2.29. γράμματα πολλὰ συνειλεγμένον: had collected many writings, as we should say, ‘had a good library.’ He may have had several dozen manuscripts. Cf. what Socrates says of himself, τοὺς θησαυροὺς τῶν πάλαι σοφῶν ἀνδρῶν, οὓς ἐκεῖνοι κατέλιπον ἐν βιβλίοις γράψαντες κτλ. i. 6. 14. σοφιστῶν: see on i.1.11. ἐκ τούτων: as a result of this. πρῶτον μέν: corresponds to ἐπεὶ δέ in 6. διὰ νεότητα: perhaps he was not yet eighteen. See on iii. 6. 1. ἡνιοποιεῖόν τι τῶν: equivalent to τὶ τῶν ἡνιοποιείων τῶν. On such shops as places of resort, see Becker, Charicles, p. 279. ᾔει: the main verb at last, preceded by the circumstantial participles καταμαθών and αἰσθανόμενος, and followed by ἔχων. τῶν μεθ̓ ἑαυτοῦ: companions. In the Anabasis the phrase generally means attendants or retinue.
πρῶτον μέν: corresponds to πάλιν δέ in 3. πυνθανομένου τινός: on some one's raising the question. Θεμιστοκλῆς: see on ii.6.13. διὰ συνουσίαν τινὸς τῶν σοφῶν: cf. σοφοὶ τύραννοι τῶν σοφῶν ξυνουσίᾳ Soph. Fr. 12. κινεῖν: to draw out, lit. to stir. τὰς τέχνας: acc. of specification with σπουδαίους skilled. ἀπὸ ταὐτομάτου: equivalent to φύσει above. Cf. λέγεται (ὁ Περικλῆς) ... οὐκ ἀπὸ ταὐτομάτου σοφὸς γεγονέναι, ἀλλὰ πολλοῖς καὶ σοφοῖς συγγεγονέναι Plato Alc. I, 118 C. So Demosthenes (xviii. 205) speaks of τὸν ταὐτόματον θάνατον, i.e. natural death.
ἀποχωροῦντα: withdrawing from. θαυμάζειν ἐπὶ σοφίᾳ: cf. i.4.3. Εὐθύδημος οὑτοσί: our friend Euthydemus here, with a gesture. For the ‘deictic’ form of prons., see G. 412; H. 274. ἐν ἡλικίᾳ γενόμενος: when he has reached the proper age. προτιθείσης: sc. through the herald. Cf. ἠρώτα μὲν ὁ κῆρυξ: τίς ἀγορεύειν βούλεται; Dem. xviii. 170. προοίμιον: the exordium, or introduction of an oration.
καὶ τἀναντία (sc. ἐποίησα): precisely the reverse. διατετέλεκα φεύγων: I have constantly avoided. For the supplementary participle with διατελέω, see G. 1587; H. 981. τὸ δόξαι: sc. μεμαθηκέναι τι παρά τινος. Cf. 5. ἐπίῃ μοι: may occur to me. So σοὶ ἐπῆλθεν ἐνθυμηθῆναι iv. 3. 3. Cf. ἐσῆλθέ με Hdt. vii. 46.
ἁρμόσειε: would be appropriate for. ἰατρικὸν ἔργον: the office of city physician. Certain physicians were, in Athens, elected by the popular assembly (ἐκκλησία) and paid by the state, to care for the sick among the poorer citizens. ἀποκινδυνεύων: by trying experiments, at your risk. οὖν: so, naturally.
προσέχων: as Euthydemus was represented in 3 as departing (ἀποχωροῦντα), either he must have changed his mind, or the present discourse is to be referred to another occasion. νομίζων περιβάλλεσθαι: the pres. inf. is especially appropriate here: “thinking that all the time he was wrapping himself in.” θαυμαστὸν γάρ: now it is surprising. τί ποτε: see on i.1.1. The irony is somewhat strengthened by ποτέ. παρὰ τοῖς ἀρίστοις κτλ.: “with teachers of the highest reputation.” πάντα: everything imaginable. See on ii. 2. 6. ἕνεκα τοῦ ποιεῖν: that they may do. ὡς οὐκ ἂν ἄλλως γενόμενοι: in the belief that otherwise they could not become. τῶν δὲ βουλομένων: while of those who wish, part. gen. with τινές. The argument is a fortiori, a favorite form with Socrates; cf. 2.
καίτοι γε τοσούτῳ ... γίγνονται: and yet success in these pursuits (collectively, statesmanship) is more difficult of attainment than in those (cithara playing etc.) just in proportion as, out of the larger number engaging in these, fewer achieve success. πλειόνων may be either part. gen. or gen. abs. of concession although a larger number engage etc.
κατ᾽ ἀρχάς: at first. ἀκούοντος Εὐθυδήμου: in the hearing of Euthydemus. ὑπομένοντα: staying behind. μόνος: contrasted with τῶν μεθ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ τινας ἔχων of 1. εἰπέ: for the accent, see on i.2.41. τῶν λεγομένων σοφῶν γεγονέναι: for the pred. adj., see G. 931; H. 940 a. ἕως ἂν κτήσωμαι: for temporal clauses implying purpose, see G. 1467; H. 921, and Remark.
νὴ τὴν Ἥραν: see on i.5.5. προείλου μᾶλλον: cf. Lat. potius malle. γνώμας: precepts. μετιέναι: to be pursuing.
τί: modifies ἀγαθός. ἆρα μὴ ἰατρός: sc. βουλόμενος γενέσθαι, in loose connection with the preceding τί δὲ δὴ βουλόμενος ἀγαθὸς γενέσθαι, after which something like ἆρα μὴ τὴν ἰατρικήν might be expected. γνωμονικοῦ ἀνδρός: with reference to the γνώμας of 9. οὔκουν: no indeed. Θεόδωρος: of Cyrene, said to have been a teacher of Socrates. ἀστρολόγος: an astronomer. Cf. iv. 7. 4. πάνυ ἠλιθίους: sufficiently represents the opinion of Socrates's time, that the professional rhapsodes declaimed the Homeric poems with little real understanding. Cf. Sym. iii. 6; Plato Ion 530 B ff.
οὐ δήπου: as in ii. 3. 1. ἀτάρ: a significant but, marking the second stage of the lesson.— καὶ μάλα: sc. κατανενόηκα. οὐχ οἷόν τέ γε: the γέ adds emphasis to the answer, in which the words of the question are in part repeated.
τοῦτο: i.e. δίκαιος γενέσθαι. οὐδενὸς ἧττον δίκαιος: as upright as any one. See on i. 5. 6. ἔργα: characteristic works. ἔχοιεν ἄν: doubly potential, in meaning and syntax. μὴ οὖν οὐ δύνωμαι: (do you fear) that I may be unable. G. 1350; H. 867. καί: nay.
βούλει, γράψωμεν: see on βούλει σκοπῶμεν ii. 1. 1. δέλτα, ἄλφα: to stand, of course, for δικαιοσύνη and ἀδικία. τιθῶμεν: pres. as denoting repeated action (hence ποίει in the answer); afterward, when a single action is spoken of, θῶμεν is used.
εἶπεν: “suggested.” δῆλον, ἔφη, ὅτι: i.e. δῆλόν ἐστι, ἔφη, ὅτι. The condensed form δῆλον ὅτι, manifestly, occurs just below. With both forms, sc. θετέον ἐστίν. τὸ κακουργεῖν (sc. ποτέρωσε θῶμεν): doing mischief. Note the increasing brevity of questions and answers. ἡμῖν: in our opinion. For the dat. of relation, see G. 1172; H. 771.
στρατηγός: pred. with αἱρεθείς. δίκαια (sc. ἔργα) ποιεῖν: sc. αὐτόν as subj. of the infinitive. πολεμῶν: in the course of the war. αὐτοῖς: i.e. the citizens implied in πόλιν above. κλέπτῃ τε καὶ ἁρπάζῃ: an example of κακουργεῖν. ὑπελάμβανον: I was assuming. πρός: with reference to. πρὸς τῇ ἀδικίᾳ: for prep. and dat. with verbs of motion, see H. 788. Little distinction seems to be made in the use of πρός with the dat. and with the acc. in this and the preceding section. ἐθήκαμεν. for the pl. forms of the 1 aor. with κ, see on ἔδωκαν i. 1. 9. Cf. An. iii. 2. 5; ἐδώκαμεν Hell. vi.3.6; παρεδώκαμεν Oec. ix. 9. Both forms occur in ἀριστεῖα ἔδωκαν, καὶ οἰκεῖν ἀτέλειαν ἔδοσαν τῷ βουλομένῳ Hell. i.2.10
βούλει: as in 13. διορισώμεθα πάλιν: make a new distinction. ἀλλά: The Eng. idiom would permit and here, since this clause is not opposed in thought to the preceding one. ὡς ἁπλούστατον εἶναι: to be perfectly straightforward.
ἀθύμως ἔχον: in a despondent condition. παύσῃ: free. εἰς τὸ αὐτό: on the same side. μὴ διαχρήσηται: lest he make away with himself. Cf. διαχρᾶσθαι Hdt. i. 24. For a similar treatment of the ordinary view of δικαιοσύνη, cf. Plato Rep. 331 C ff.
ἅπαντα ἁπλοΐζεσθαι: with reference to the ὡς ἁπλούστατον εἶναι of 16. μετατίθεμαι: much like ἀνατίθεμαι in i. 2. 44. Cf. Hdt. vii. 18. δεῖ ἐξεῖναι: sc. μετατίθεσθαι.
ἐξαπατώντων ἐπὶ βλάβῃ: in 17 and 18 the argument dealt with justifiable violations of the moral law for a good purpose; we are now to consider malicious deceit towards friends. ἑκών: intentionally.
τῶν γραμμάτων: lit. letters; here, the rudiments of learning, reading and writing. ὁπότε βούλοιτο: for the assimilation of mode, see on αἰσθανοίμεθα i. 5. 1.—δικαιότερον κτλ.: the fallacy, of course, consists in the assumption that he who knows what is right will always do it; a confusing of knowledge with character. He who knows the right is not ‘righter,’ but only ‘more knowing’ than he who does not know it. While we recognize this argument as a weak place in Socrates's reasoning, it is not necessary to regard him as insincere in making use of it to convict the young man of ignorance. It is clear that to him the term ‘knowledge’ included more than we understand by it. See Introd. §§ 18-21. φαίνομαι (sc. τοῦτο λέγων): “evidently I am saying this.” οὐκ οἶδ᾽ ὅπως: somehow or other.
21-29. Euthydemus is made to confess that he does not know what he thought he knew. Socrates, having destroyed the young man's selfconfidence, impresses on him the importance of self-knowledge; and, by a series of searching questions, brings him to see and confess how sadly he needs this knowledge. 21. ὃς ἂν μηδέποτε τὰ αὐτὰ περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν λέγῃ: a fault frequently committed by Euthydemus in the preceding portion of the dialogue. Cf. Plato Gorg. 491 B, C. φράζων: describing. λογισμὸν τὸν αὐτόν: one and the same calculation.— δῆλος, ὅτι οἶδεν: see on οὐ λανθάνεις με, ὅτι iii. 5. 24.
ἀνδραποδώδεις: servile. See on i. 1. 16. ἀλλ᾽ ἄρα: “at fortasse.” Cf. iii.11.4. τοὐναντίον: adverbial. See on i. 2. 60. οὐδὲ δἰ ἓν τούτων: more emphatic than δἰ οὐδὲν τούτων would be. τὸ ὄνομα τοῦτ᾽ ἐστίν: does this name belong.
ἀνδράποδα: lit. slaves, here indicates the opposite of καλοὶ κἀγαθοί, hence boors, the ignobile vulgus. See on καλοὺς κἀγαθούς i. 1. 16. πάνυ ᾤμην: I certainly supposed. φιλοσοφεῖν φιλοσοφίαν: “that I was following a plan of study.” ἂν παιδευθῆναι: for the inf. with ἄν in indirect discourse, see on iii.5.2. τὰ προσήκοντα: for one of two accs. retained in the pass. with verbs of teaching, see G. 1239; H. 724 a. ὀρεγομένῳ: for the attrib. participle, see G. 1559; H. 965. πῶς: exclamatory rather than interr., belongs to ἀθύμως. διά: in view of the following neg., suggests the meaning “after,” “in spite of.” Similarly ἕνεκα iv. 3. 3. ὑπὲρ ὧν: i.e. ὑπὲρ τούτων, ἅ. Const. with τὸ ἐρωτώμενον a question in regard to matters which. ἣν πορευόμενος: by pursuing which.
εἰς Δελφοὺς δέ: the δέ seems to oppose its sent. to the preceding: “You say you have no other road to travel; have you ever gone to Delphi?” Delphi was the home of Apollo's most celebrated oracle, on the slopes of Mt. Parnassus in Phocis. The modern village which occupied the site of the ancient Delphi has been purchased and removed; and extensive excavations have been made by French archaeologists. ναῷ: see on iii.8.10. τὸ ‘Γνῶθι σαυτόν’: the famous ‘Know thyself.’ This celebrated saying, variously attributed to Bias, Chilo, and others of the Seven Wise Men, was a favorite one with Socrates, as embodying the essence of his philosophy. Cf. οὐ δύναμαί πω κατὰ τὸ Δελφικὸν γράμμα (inscription) γνῶναι ἐμαυτόν Plato Phaedr. 229 E. Cf. also Cic. Tusc. Disp. i. 22. 52. σχολῇ ἂν ᾔδειν: the neg. effect of σχολῇ (hardly) is well shown in this apod. of an unfulfilled condition. Cf. iii.14.3.
ὅν: i.e. τὸν ἵππον, ὅν. τἄλλα πρὸς τὴν χρείαν, ὅπως ἔχει: how he is in the other points pertaining to the use. οὕτως ὁ ἑαυτὸν ἐπισκεψάμενος: after the long comparison beginning with ὥσπερ, the subj. ὅστις is renewed by the article. δοκεῖ: the personal construction.
ἄνθρωποι: without the article, as often. διὰ τὸ ἐψεῦσθαι ἑαυτῶν: for the gen. with verbs of failing, deceiving, etc., see G. 1099; H. 748. διαγιγνώσκουσιν ἅ τε, καὶ ἅ: see on iii.1.9. καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους: sc. as well as themselves.
εἰδότες: sc. ἑαυτούς. διεψευσμένοι: the διά denotes completeness, thoroughly deceived. ὁμοίως διάκεινται: are in the same condition, sc. of ignorance as to other men and other affairs.
οἵ τε ὅμοιοι: i.e. those who have similar knowledge. καί, γέ: and, even. Obs. the emphatic repetition of the dem. pron. οὗτος. ἔχουσι: “they rest.”
κακῶς αἱρούμενοι: making unfortunate choices, in cases where they have to decide what is suited to their powers. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀδοξοῦσι: but they also lose reputation. In addition to the concrete losses sustained by the failure of their plans, come chagrin and ill repute. τῶν πόλεων ὅτι: emphatic position before ὅσαι, to heighten the contrast of πόλεων with the individuals just mentioned. ἐξ ἐλευθέρων: from a condition of freedom. See on ἐκ παίδων ii. 1. 21.
30-39. Socrates shows Euthydemus that he still lacks the most necessary conditions of self-knowledge. His conception of good and evil is far from satisfactory; and, while professing an ambition to share in the leadership of a democratic state, he is at the same time unable to say what the δῆμος really is. 30. ὡς πάνυ μοι δοκοῦν, οὕτως ἴσθι: “rest assured that I fully believe,” lit. in the belief that this seems so to me, understand accordingly. The participle is acc. absolute. For this use of the circumstantial participle, see GMT. 917; H. 973. Cf. ἀλλ᾽ ὡς φανέν γε τοὔπος ὧδ̓ ἐπίστασο Soph. Oed. Tyr. 848. ὁπόθεν δέ: but as to the point from which. τοῦτο: emphatic position, obj. of ἐξηγήσασθαι. εἰ ἐθελήσαις ἄν: (to see) whether you would be willing, an indirect question after ἀποβλέπω, and also a potential opt. with faintly conceived protasis. G. 1327, 1605; H. 872, 1016.
πού: with irony, as in iii. 3. 2. εἰ μὴ οἶδα, ἂν εἴην: for the ‘mixed’ cond., see on εἴ ἐστι, καλῶς ἂν ἔχοι ii. 5. 4. αὐτὸ τὸ ὑγιαίνειν: health itself, contrasted with τὰ αἴτια the causes. ἔπειτα: without δέ, as in i. 4. 11. ἐπιτηδεύματα: occupations. τὰ μέν, τὰ δέ: see on ii.1.4.
ὅταν γίγνηται, ἂν εἴη: see on 31, and cf. G. 1437; H. 918. βλαβερᾶς: disastrous. μετασχόντες, ἀπολειφθέντες: both participles, indicating respectively sharing and separation, are const. with the preceding genitives. οὐδέν: sc. μᾶλλον ἀγαθὰ ἢ κακά.
τί δαί: how so, expresses ironical surprise. Δαίδαλον: the famous artificer, who built the Labyrinth for Minos, king of Crete. The story of his escape by means of wings fastened with wax to his shoulders, and of the death of his son Icarus, was a favorite with the ancients. Cf. Ovid Met. viii. 157 ff. Μίνω: for the form, see on ἵλεῳ i. 1. 9. ἐκείνῳ: i.e. Minos. See on i. 2. 3. Παλαμήδους: one of the wisest of the Greeks before Troy. The various legends about him (many of them later than Xenophon's time) generally agree in making him the object of Odysseus's envy and malice. Cf. Ovid Met. viii. 56-59. ἀπόλλυται: pres. tense, citing an event well known in song and story. ἀνασπάστους γεγονέναι: cf. ἀνάστατοι γίγνονται 29. βασιλέα: see on iii.5.26.
κινδυνεύει: is likely. Cf. ii. 3. 17; iii. 13. 3. Euthydemus begins abruptly, without acknowledging the justice of what has just been said. εἴ γε μή τις συντιθείη: unless, indeed, we should compose it. τῶν εὐδαιμονικῶν: the elements of happiness.
προσθήσομεν: sc. ταῦτα. παρακεκινηκότων: “beside themselves.” οὐ μικροῖς: ‘litotes.’ πεπόνθασιν: for the rare ‘gnomic’ pf., see G. 1295; H. 824 b.
πρὸς τοὺς θεούς: instead of the simple dative. Cf. εὔχετο πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον Hdt. vii. 54. δημοκρατίαν: ‘prolepsis.’ So δῆμον in line 309. See on i. 2. 13.
δυνατόν: possible. μὴ εἰδότα: without knowing. See on ἁπτόμενον i. 3. 8. εἰς ἃ δεῖ τελεῖν: to pay for the necessaries of life.
ταῦτα: “that little.” καὶ νὴ Δία, οἶδα γὰρ καί: aye, by Zeus; why, I also know of. ἀναγκάζονται ἀδικεῖν: cf. κακουργεῖν in 14. For the thought, cf. τῷ οὖν τυράννῳ τὰ πολλαπλάσια ἧττον ἱκανά ἐστιν εἰς τὰ ἀναγκαῖα δαπανήματα ἢ τῷ ἰδιώτῃ Hiero iv. 9.
τοὺς μὲν τυράννους: as if Euthydemus had spoken, not of some princes, but of the princes as a class. δῆλον ὅτι: evidently. See on iii. 7. 1. φαυλότης: lit. worthlessness, here “lack of insight.” φροντίζω μὴ ᾖ: for obj. clauses with verbs of fearing, see on i.2.18. κινδυνεύω γὰρ ἁπλῶς οὐδὲν εἰδέναι: for I seem to know absolutely nothing. πάνυ ἀθύμως ἔχων: in a very despondent frame of mind. τῷ ὄντι ἀνδράποδον: cf. ἀνδραποδώδεις 22, and ὅπως μὴ ἀνδράποδα ὦμεν 23.
τῶν οὕτω διατεθέντων: of those thus treated. ὅτι μάλιστα: quam frequentissime. διετάραττεν: sc. ἐλέγχων, as, e.g., in 20, 33, 39. ἁπλούστατα: quite simply, without irony. ἅ τε ἐνόμιζεν: we should expect the τέ after εἰδέναι. Its position is due to the condensed form of the sent., which, in full, would read ἐξηγεῖτο ἅ τε ἐνόμιζεν εἰδέναι δεῖν καὶ ἃ ἐνόμιζεν ἐπιτηδεύειν κράτιστα εἶναι.
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